Preparations and production technologies of cleansing milks based on cenosphere obtained from flying ashes
Application of cenosphere obtained from flying ashes as effective abrasive for cleansing milks was analyzed in the paper. Preparations and production technology of ten milks with various contents of cenosphere (from 2% to 20%) were designed. The products were tested to determine their most important usable properties. The efficiency of application and dispersion, cleansing ability, ability to emulsify fatty soils and destructing activity, measured as polish of surfaces, were analyzed. Selected trade products were tested analogously. The results obtained show that cenosphere can be a good replacement of abrasives that are widely used. The cenosphere-based products revealed comparable usable properties to the trade products (or even better). It is probable that producers of cleansers will pay their attention to this waste, which will bring profits to the natural environment.
Relationships Between Performance Test Results of Gilts of Different Breeds
The relationships expressed as calculated correlation coefficients were determined between the results of 44 110 purebred gilts performance tested in the years 2004-2008. The animals came from the Bydgoszcz Breeding Region and represented 5 breeds (Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc and Pietrain) and synthetic Line 990. The traits taken into account were: age and body weight on test day, daily body weight gain standardized to 180 days of age, backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points, loin eye height at P4 points, body meat content, and performance test selection index. Negative and highly significant correlations were found between growth rate and standardized backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points in all gilts of the tested breeds except Line 990. In the case of two breeds (Polish Large White and Pietrain) and Line 990, the correlation coefficients between daily body weight gain and standardized body meat content were negative and highly significant, which possibly suggests the unfavourable impact of high growth rate on the meat content. Higher correlation coefficient values were observed between the performance test selection index and the daily body weight gain than between the selection index and the body meat content of Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire and Pietrain gilts.
Dogwood berries represent a valuable source of a variety of active ingredients. A group that deserves special attention comprises iridoids – compounds with potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antibacterial properties. The present study is an attempt to obtain an innovative plant material from dogwood berries. To this end, water and water/ethanol-based extracts (1:1) were prepared and, as the next step, an iridoids-rich fraction was isolated. The total content of iridoids was determined spectrophotometrically, and antioxidant properties of the isolates were concurrently assessed. Additionally, skin whitening activity of isolated fractions was assessed on the basis of tyrosinase inhibition measurement. The testing schedule also involved the formulation of model washing systems based on anionic surfactants. The effect of adding the fractions obtained by the above method on the irritant potential was assessed by determining the zein number
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) are valuable pharmaceutical raw materials on account of their high content of inulin, a natural prebiotic. Inulin-rich plants are also increasingly employed in the formulation of cosmetic products. The paper presents the biological properties of aqueous and aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Jerusalem artichoke and chicory. The extracts have been found to have a high free radical scavenging ability, with the most beneficial antioxidant properties being observed for the aqueous-ethanolic extract of Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin isolated from both plant types is a safe and non-toxic raw material. Inulin added to model body wash gel formulations markedly reduces their potential to cause skin irritation and sensitization.
Backfat Fatty Acid Profile of Crossbred Pigs Fed a Diet Supplemented with Conjugated Linoleic acid or Sunflower Oil
The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of feeding pigs with different levels of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or sunflower oil (SFO) on the backfat fatty acid profile. The subjects of research were 60 crossbred gilts divided into 6 groups, which were fed different levels of conjugated linoleic acid or sunflower oil (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, respectively). All fatteners were kept and fed under standardized conditions. Animals were slaughtered at 95 kg of body weight. Fatty acid profile was determined in samples of backfat from each animal using gas chromatography. The significance of differences between groups was verified by Duncan's test. In the present study, a beneficial effect of adding CLA was that it reduced saturated fatty acids and increased unsaturated fatty acids in the adipose tissue (backfat) of pigs as compared to fatteners receiving SFO. The amount of monounsaturated fatty acids in the backfat decreased with increasing amounts of CLA or SFO. Modifying the fatty acid profile of pig backfat through addition of CLA or SFO would be beneficial to the health of consumers because relatively large amounts of fat pork, including backfat, are added to the sausages.
The study addressed the effect of the structure of silicone polyethers on selected functional properties of cotton fabric rinsed in conditioners containing the additives under study. Fabric softener formulations containing two comb-structured compounds (PEG/PPG-14/0 Dimethicone and PEG/PPG-20/20 Dimethicone) and one block-structured compound (Bis-PEG/PPG-20/20 Dimethicone) were developed. Cotton fabric rinsed in conditioners containing silicone glycols was not found to be affected by yellowing. However, differences were noted in the softening ability and re-wettability of rinsed fabrics due to diverse structures of the additives used. The most desirable soft hand effect was observed after cotton rinsing in fabric softeners containing the block-structured compound Bis-PEG/PPG-20/20 Dimethicone. In contrast, the highest fabric re-wettability was shown for the conditioner enriched with a comb-structured compound (PEG/PPG-20/20 Dimethicone). The study results demonstrate that the prototypical fabric softeners containing silicone derivatives have a potential to provide quality characteristic required by consumers of this product group.