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Ewa Błońska, Kazimierz Januszek, Tomasz Wanic and Stanisław Małek

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the condition of soil after serpentine fertilisation by determining the activity of phosphatase and some physicochemical properties of soil. The study was conducted in southern Poland in the Wisła Forest District (49°8’12.92N 18°58’56.36E). The following variants: C - control - no fertiliser; S - ground serpentinite; SN - serpentinite + nitrogen; SP - ground serpentinite + P; SNP - ground serpentinite + NP; SNPK - ground serpentinite + NP (as above) + K. Fertilisation of serpentinite stimulates the activity of phosphatase in soil under spruce stands. The positive impact is reflected in the organic horizon. Less activity was noted in the humus-mineral horizon (AE) in all the fertiliser combinations three years after the fertilisation. Fertilisation of serpentinite improves the chemical properties - pH was increased, reduction of molar ratio of exchangeable calcium to magnesium form was noted.

Open access

Jarosław Lasota, Ewa Błońska, Tomasz Wanic and Maciej Zwydak

Abstract

The subject of this study were soil requirements of common woody shrubs, which may be part of the forest understory (Sorbus aucuparia L., Frangula alnus Mill., Corylus avellana L., Juniperus communis L., Padus avium Mill., Euonymus europaea L., Sambucus nigra L.). We focused on phytocenoses in the vicinity of natural forests in reserves and national parks of Polish lowlands and defined optimal types and subtypes of soil with trophic variations for each underwood species. The range of trophism for each species of shrub was determined using specific physicochemical properties of the soils, while soil quality was assessed using the Trophic Soil Index (SIG) (Brożek et al. 2011a). The ecological requirements of the before-mentioned underwood species were linked with forest typology as well as natural vegetation and they showed different soil requirements. Here we report significant differences in particle size and dynamics of organic matter decomposition in soils associated with these underwood species.

Open access

Jarosław Lasota, Ewa Błońska, Maciej Zwydak and Tomasz Wanic

Abstract

The physical and chemical properties of soil are the basic features that are used in the assessment of mountain sites. The aim of this study was to produce a simple key for classifying forest sites in mountain areas using soil particle size distribution. 200 plots (standard typological space) were selected for examination, most of which are typical of the Carpathians - being dominated by flysch rock. A few plots were located in the Sudety and Tatra Mountains, which have a different surface geology, mostly metamorphic rock and granite. The study proved that soil properties (reaction, base saturation, content of base cations, organic carbon and nitrogen) are helpful in distinguishing and assigning soils to particular site types. The particle size distribution of forest mountain sites separated into different categories in terms of productivity. These results can be used to improve the classification of forest mountain sites.

Open access

Ewa Błońska, Kazimierz Januszek, Stanisław Małek and Tomasz Wanic

Abstract

The experimental plots used in the study were located in the middle forest zone (elevation: 900-950 m a.s.l.) on two nappes of the flysch Carpathians in southern Poland. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of serpentinite in combination with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers on selected chemical properties of the soil and activity of dehydrogenase and urease in the studied soils. All fertilizer treatments significantly enriched the tested soils in magnesium. The use of serpentinite as a fertilizer reduced the molar ratio of exchangeable calcium to magnesium, which facilitated the uptake of magnesium by tree roots due to competition between calcium and magnesium. After one year of fertilization on the Wisła experimental plot, the pH of the Ofh horizon increased, while the pH of the mineral horizons significantly decreased. Enrichment of serpentinite with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers stimulated the dehydrogenase activity in the studied organic horizon. The lack of a negative effect of the serpentinite fertilizer on enzyme activity in the spruce stand soil showed that the concentrations of the heavy metals added to the soil were not high enough to be toxic and indicated the feasibility of using this fertilizer in forestry.

Open access

Tomasz Wanic, Jan Bodziarczyk, Michał Gąsiorek, Paweł Hawryło, Agnieszka Józefowska, Bartłomiej Kajdas, Ryszard Mazurek, Marta Szostak, Michał Usień, Piotr Wężyk, Paweł ZadrożNy, Karolina Zięba-Kulawik and Tomasz Zaleski

Abstract

The primary objective of this study was to characterise the edaphic conditions of forest areas in the Pieniny National Park (PNP), and to describe the dependencies between properties of forest soils and types of forest plant communities. The “Soil Trophic Index” (SIGg) for mountainous areas was applied. The evaluation of the trophism for 74 forest monitoring employed the soil trophic index for mountainous areas SIGg or SIGgo. Plant communities in the forest monitoring areas were classified according to the Braun-Blanquet’s phytosociological method. Soils of PNP present in the forest monitoring areas were mostly classified as eutrophic brown soils (72.9%), rendzinas (10.8%), brown rendzinas (5.41%), and rubble initial soils (5.41%). Pararendzinas, dystrophic brown soils, and gley soils were less common (total below 5.5%). In the forest monitoring areas of PNP, eutrophic soils predominate over mesotrophic soils. High SIGg index of the soils is caused by high values of acidity and nitrogen content. The Carpathian beech forest Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum and thermophilic beech forest Carici albae-Fagetum associations are characterised by high naturalness and compatibility of theoretical habitats. The soils of the Carpathian fir forest Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum abietetosum subcommunity is characterised by a higher share of silt and clay particles and lower acidity as compared to the Carpathian beech forest Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum typicum subcommunity. The soils of the forest monitoring areas in PNP stand out in terms of their fertility against forest soils in other mountainous areas in Poland.