Endoscopic Treatment of the Choledocholithiasis - Effectiveness, Safety and Limitations of the Method
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP) is accepted referred method of treatment of the choledocholithiasis
The aim of the study. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of the endoscopic treatment of the biliary tract stones.
Material and methods. Results of 3309 Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP) carried out in Division of Endoscopy of the General Surgery Department in the period 2000 - 2010. The retrospective analysis of the indications, process, findings and final results of 1698 ERCP and Endoscopic Sphincterotomy (ES) was performed with intention to treat of the biliary tract stones.
Results. The 883 (52%)patients with coexisted gall-bladder and biliary tract stones were the principal group. The second group included 580 (34.2%) patients with residual choledocholithiasis after cholecystectomy and biliary tract surgery. Moreover ERCP, ES and endoscopic evacuation of biliary stones have been urgently carried out in 159 (9.4%) cases with acute biliary pancreatitis. Lastly ERCP with re-sphincterotomy and removal of the stones was performed in 75 (4.4%) patients with recurrent choledocholithiasis. The procedure was effective in 1561 (92%) patients. When removal of the stones was not possible, decompression of the biliary tract by implantation of the plastic stent was done in 63 (3.7%) cases. Ineffective procedure was noted in 74 (4.3%) patients. The most commonly observed complication was acute pancreatitis. Because of: post ES bleeding, acute haemmorhagic and necrotic pancreatitis, impacted Dormia basket and peripapillary duodenal perforation 10 patients (0.5%) had to be operated. Two patients (0.1%) died.
Conclusions. 1. Endoscopic treatment of choledocholithiasis is highly effective but risk factors of complications with urgency an intensive conservative management and surgical intervention have to be considered. 2. After ES, if surgical evacuation of the stones have to be carry out, post operative biliary tract drainage (by T tube) is not necessary.