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Open access

Tomasz Spiżewski and Mikołaj Knaflewski

The Effect of Irrigation Methods on the Yield of Pickling Cucumber

The effects of drip irrigation combined with fertigation and sprinkler irrigation combined with broadcast fertilisation on the yield of pickling cucumber were compared in an experiment carried out over three years. The control treatment was broadcast fertilised and did not receive any irrigation.

For the three years, on average, no difference in the yields of cucumber was found between sprinkler and drip irrigated plants; however, in one year the yield of the drip irrigated crop was higher. The percentage of fruit of pickling size was higher and the non-marketable yield lower when cucumber plants were drip irrigated. Drip irrigation was more efficient than sprinkler irrigation. Irrigation decreased the total sugar and vitamin C content, but there was no difference between drip and sprinkler irrigation.

Open access

Alina Kałużewicz, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Mikołaj Knaflewski, Jolanta Lisiecka, Tomasz Spiżewski and Barbara Frąszczak

Summary

Three-year studies on the influence of temperature on vegetative growth and growth of broccoli heads (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Fiesta) were carried out at the Experimental Station “Marcelin” of Poznań University of Life Sciences in Poland. The relationship between temperature sum day-degree, number and area of leaves as well as head diameter was estimated. Likewise relationship between number and area of leaves and head diameter was established. The correlations were described using linear, curvilinear and segment linear regression. The relationship between temperature sum day-degree and number of leaves was linear, whereas the correlation between temperature and area of leaves and head diameter was curves function. On the basis of segment linear regression it was found that in the period when slow growth of heads was observed (the size of up to about 1.5 cm), the area of leaves increased the fastest. It occurred between the 24th and 27th day after planting. The fastest growth of broccoli heads was noted, when the plant had about 18 leaves and area 4900 cm2. In the period of rapid head growth, the increase of sum temperature of 100 day-degree resulted in head diameter increase by 3.5 cm.

Open access

Iwona Golak-Siwulska, Alina Kałużewicz, Tomasz Spiżewski, Marek Siwulski and Krzysztof Sobieralski

Abstract

There are about 40 species in the Pleurotus genus, including those with high economic significance, i.e. P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius. The fruiting bodies of oyster mushrooms are of high nutritional and health-promoting value. In addition, many species belonging to the Pleurotus genus have been used as sources of substances with documented medicinal properties, such as high-molecular weight bioactive compounds (polysaccharides, peptides and proteins) and low-molecular weight compounds (terpenoids, fatty acid esters and polyphenols). The bioactive substances contained in the mycelium and fruiting bodies of Pleurotus species exhibit immunostimulatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-oxidative properties. Their multidirectional positive influence on the human organism is the result of interaction of bioactive substances. Extracts from individual Pleurotus species can be used for the production of dietary supplements increasing the organism’s immunity. They are also used for the production of cosmetics. They can be added to functional foods as probiotics, or used as natural preservatives or ingredients of special foodstuffs for patients with specific diseases.

Open access

Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski, Monika Komon-Żelazowska, Lidia Błaszczyk, Romuald Górski, Tomasz Spiżewski and Iwona Sas-Golak

Evaluation of the Growth of Trichoderma Pleurotum and Trichoderma Pleuroticola Isolates and Their Biotic Interaction with Pleurotus Sp.

Growth of Trichoderma pleurotum and T. pleuroticola isolates on the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium was investigated. T. pleuroticola isolates showed a significantly greater diameter of their mycelium colonies after 5 days of incubation than the T. pleurotum isolates. In addition, biotic interactions between T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola isolates and species of Pleurotus sp. were determined. The following six species of oyster mushroom were used: P. florida, P. cornucopiae, P. pulmonarius, P. columbinus, P. ostreatus and P. eryngii. It was demonstrated that isolates of the T. pleuroticola species limited the growth of the examined species of oyster mushroom to a much greater extent than the isolates of the T. pleurotum species.

Open access

Dorota Frużyńska-Jóźwiak, Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski, Tomasz Spiżewski, Lidia Błaszczyk and Iwona Sas-Golak

Effect of Trichoderma Isolates on Yielding of Wild Strains of Coprinus Comatus

The impact of infestation with Trichoderma aggressivum f. europeanum and Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolates on the yielding of three wild strains and one cultivated strain of Coprinus comatus was investigated. A significant yield reduction of C. comatus on substrates infested with the examined Trichoderma isolates was determined. The recorded percentage yield reduction was significantly higher in the case of the infestation with the T. aggressivum than with the T. longibrachiatum isolate.

Open access

Jean Diatta, Edward Fojcik, Leszek Drobek, Tomasz Spiżewski and Włodzimierz Krzesiński

Abstract

The study compared coal fly and bottom ashes for their ability to inactivate metals and lead to soil remediation. Soil was artificially contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd at five degrees. Next, both ashes were added at five rates: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% and all treatments incubated. Data showed that for moderately contaminated soils, ash rates of 0.5 - 1.0% were efficient from 40 to 70% for Zn and Cd, and raised markedly to between 70 and 93% for Cu and Pb. For extremely contaminated soils, the rates of ashes at 1.0, 1.5 and 2% were much more efficient (60 - 80%). The use of fly and bottom ashes for metal inactivation and soil remediation should give greater consideration to the effect of pH and the type of heavy metals than the content of SiO2and Al2O3. Fly ash displayed superior inactivation and remediation effects to the bottom ash.

Open access

Alina Kałużewicz, Monika Gąsecka and Tomasz Spiżewski

Abstract

Biostimulants are commonly used in horticulture, primarily to increase yield quantity and quality, as well as plant tolerance to stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of amino acid-based biostimulants and amino acids in combination with Ascophyllum nodosum filtrate, applied during the growing season on the phenolic content in broccoli heads both after harvest and after long storage in a cold store. The seedlings were planted in mid-July, and heads were harvested from September to October in each year of the study. Ascophyllum nodosum filtrate at a concentration of 1% was used during seedling production. The plants were watered with biostimulants twice, in the fourth and fifth week after sowing. They were also sprayed with amino acid-based biostimulants (1.5 dm3 ha-1) three times, i.e. after the second, fourth and sixth week after planting. The biostimulants were not used in the control treatment. After harvest, the heads were stored for three weeks in a cold store at 1-2°C and 95% RH. Chemical analyses of total phenolic, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids, and of quercetin and kaempferol were carried out on samples of fresh broccoli and after the first, second and third week of storage. It was found that the application of biostimulants resulted in a significant increase in the total phenolic content, sinapic acid content, as well as quercetin content. Both in the control treatment and in the plants treated with the biostimulants, the concentration of all the tested phenolic compounds increased with the duration of storage.

Open access

Tomasz Kleiber, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Katarzyna Przygocka-Cyna and Tomasz Spiżewski

Abstract

Mn, as Fe, Zn, Cu and Ni is a heavy metal and also a necessary element all the living organisms. Excessive Mn nutrition causes a strong oxidative stress. The aim of the studies was to determination the effect of Se treatment (as sodium selenite Na2O4Se3) to alleviate the Mn stress of plants. Because of its sensitivity to oxidative stress induced by excessive concentrations of Mn a model plant was lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. ‘Sunny’). The studies were conducted in a controlled environment growth room in stable climate conditions: 16 h photoperiod; temperature light/dark 18.0 ±0.5°C/16.0 ±0.5°C; relative humidity 70-80%; quantum flux density 195-205 μmol m−2 s−1. Plants were grown hydroponically in nutrient solution characterized by excessive Mn content (19.2 mg dm−3) and different contents of Se (control; 0.77, 1.05, 1.33 mg dm−3). In all the combination were also tested different foliar sprays (distilled water and a 0.005% Se solution). Plants grown under conditions described above take up and transported Se from nutrient solutions into their leaves with a significant reduction of Mn concentration and changes in the plant nutrient status. With the increase in the concentrations of Se clearly narrowed quantitative relations in the leaves between this element and micro-metallic. Increasing Se levels in nutrient solution has a positive influence on the growth of plants, but Se foliar treatment generally decreases plant yield. The study shown that Se application may lead to alleviation of Mn stress of plants, with simultaneous reduce in Mn concentration in leaves - which may be of practical importance also in the cultivation of more economically important species.