Transformations of the Employment Structure as an Expression of the Transformation of Polish Industry Against the Background of the European Union
Global social and economic changes, connected mainly with globalization processes, have an impact on changes both in present spatial and division structures of the industry and in its functions in the economic development of various spatial systems. The aim of the paper is to analyze changes in the industry's role in the Polish economy during the period of economic transformation and European integration based on its share in the employment structure. These changes are set against transformations in other EU countries, diversification and transformations of the division structure of employment in Polish industry and the similarity of the Polish employment structures to the EU countries as an expression of transformation processes. The analyzed processes are stimulated by the international environment and a change in national conditions for the socio-economic development.
Structural Changes in the Industry of Poland Aagainst the Background of Eastern European Union States
Industrial restructuring processes associated with the transformation of the system taking place in Poland and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe bring about structural changes in manufacturing intended to develop intellectually-intensive industries based on the implementation of the latest research and development (R&D) results. The purpose of this article is therefore to present changes in the role of industry in the economy of Poland based on its share in employment and gross value added in comparison with other eastern EU countries, as well as structural changes in the industrial sectors (NACE divisions). The comparison will assess the competitive position of Polish industry on international markets, particularly against the other states transforming their economies. The analysis will seek to establish to what extent the structural changes in Polish industry indicate positive effects of the country's economic transformation.
The goal of this article is to determine regularities concerning structural changes in the industrial and service sectors in Poland in the light of trends observable in the development of the world and national economies. The analysis embraces Poland in the years of the socio-economic transformation, but because of access to comparable data it focuses mainly on the years 2000-2014. Use is made of measures commonly applied in economic geography (employment, gross value added) and indicators based on them (mainly the structure and dynamics of change). First, the change in the role of the industrial and service sectors in the Polish economy as compared with other EU states is analysed in the light of the theoretical conceptions presented in the literature. Examined next are changes in the internal structure of the sectors and in the level of their innovativeness. The research showed there to be only slight changes in the role of the two sectors over the study period. Changes in the structure of the industrial sector tend towards its modernisation, which can signal steps taken for re-industrialisation.
Objective: The article aimed at identifying the position of the entrepreneurship course in the Polish education system and analysing the changes in its curriculum in the condition of the education system reform since 2017. Besides, attempts have been made to determine changes in this regard in the light of the analysis of the “old” and “new” core curriculum of general education in secondary schools of various types.
Methodology: Research was conducted by analysing the teaching content and existing data (desk research), which are the provisions of the national core curriculum (NCC) for general education in various types of schools currently in force and implemented in the ongoing reform of the education system. This analysis has been carried out against the previous research results presented in the literature on the subject using previously used methods of teaching content analysis.
Findings: The conducted research has shown that more attention should be paid to developing business competencies as part of the reform of the education system. In the NCC, cross-subject correlations have been taken into account, so that the same content is not unnecessarily duplicated. Entrepreneurship education should become more practical and oriented towards preparation for running own business and using financial services.
Value Added: The findings show that the new entrepreneurship education program assumptions in Poland will influence the development of entrepreneurship to a greater extent than before.
Recommendation: The results indicate that in the process of implementing the NCC a key role is played by the teacher, therefore it is necessary to prepare them well for its realization. However, the effects of implementing the program reform may only be observed and investigated in the future, therefore further research after several years is needed.
Jan Konieczyński, Bogusław Komosiński, Ewelina Cieślik, Tomasz Konieczny, Barbara Mathews, Tomasz Rachwał and Grzegorz Rzońca
The aim of this research was to assess the content and composition of the pollutants emitted by domestic central heating boilers equipped with an automatic underfeed fuel delivery system for the combustion chamber. The comparative research was conducted. It concerned fuel properties, flue gas parameters, contents of dust (fl y ash) and gaseous substances polluting the air in the flue gases emitted from a domestic CH boiler burning bituminous coal, pellets from coniferous wood, cereal straw, miscanthus, and sunflower husks, coniferous tree bark, and oats and barley grain. The emission factors for dust and gaseous air pollutants were established as they are helpful to assess the contribution of such boilers in the atmospheric air pollution. When assessing the researched boiler, it was found out that despite the development in design and construction, flue gases contained fly ash with a significant EC content, which affected the air quality.