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Katarzyna Kubiak and Tomasz Oszako

Filtry piaskowe w ochronie roślin przed chorobami w szkółkach

Open access

Tomasz Oszako, Katarzyna Sikora, Lassaâd Belbahri and Justyna A. Nowakowska

Abstract

Pathogens of Phytophthora genus are common not only in forest nurseries and stands, but also in water courses. Species of Phytophthora spread with plants for plantings (and soil attached to them) and with water courses as well, attacking the plants growing in riparian ecosystems. Several specialized organisms damaging only one tree species were identified like P. alni on alders or P. quercina on oaks. Some Phytophthora species can develop on several hosts like P. plurivora and P. cactorum on oaks, beeches, alders, ashes and horse chestnuts. Other oomycetes like P. gallica species was found for the first time in Poland in water used for plant watering in forest nursery. Species P. lacustris and P. gonapodyides were found in superficial water. Phytophthora species P. polonica was identified in the declining alder stands for the first time in the world, and P. taxon hungarica and P. megasperma were found in the rhizosphere of seriously damaged ash stands for the first time in Poland. The most often isolated species were P. plurivora (clade 2) with frequency 37% and P. lacustris with frequency 33% (clade 6). The best represented clade 6 revealed the occurrence of 6 species: P. gonapodyides, P. lacustris, P. megasperma, P. sp. raspberry, P. taxon hungarica and P. taxon oak soil.

Open access

Tomasz Oszako, Katarzyna Sikora, Lassaâd Belbahri and Justyna A. Nowakowska

Abstract

In Poland, about 20% of forest nurseries use irrigation water coming from natural superficial reservoirs, presumed to be the first source of infection caused by harmful pathogens belonging to the Oomycota class, especially Phytophthora genus and Pythium genus. The forest nursery is the only place where forest managers can react before pathogens leave it with asymptomatic plants or soil attached to their roots. The aim of this research was detection and identification phytopathogens in water samples. In order to recognise genus Phytophthora or Pythium in water collected from 33 places in five different forest districts in Poland, two DNA-based approaches of identification were applied: (i) the TaqMan probes, and (ii) sequencing of the ITS6/4 region.

The genomic DNA was obtained from 17 of 33 investigated water samples. TaqMan probes helped to identify 8 oomycetes present in 17 water samples. Based on ITS rDNA sequencing data, pathogens were identified in 17 cases, and this to the genus level (6 cases) and to the species level (11 cases). In total five Oomycetes species were identified, i.e. 3 Pythium species (Py. citrinum, Py. angustatum, Py. helicoides) and two Phytophthora species (P. lacustris sp. nov. - former taxon Salixsoil, P. gallica sp. nov.).

Open access

Adam Okorski, Agnieszka Pszczółkowska, Tomasz Oszako and Justyna A. Nowakowska

Abstract

The possibility of using chemicals in European forestry is extremely limited due to the binding legal regulations and specific conditions concerning the market of plant protection products. This is reflected in the limited availability of active fungicides in forestry. Due to this limitation, practitioners using fungicides in forest nurseries and forest cultivation must have substantial knowledge of the biology of pathogens to ensure satisfactorily effective protection.

The work presented here provides an overview of the currently recommended fungicides in Polish forestry as well as the mechanisms of interaction between the active substances and the pathogen, the plant and mycorrhizal fungi. The risk of fungicide resistance, which has been insufficiently explored in the context of forest pathogens, is also discussed in this paper.

Open access

Tomasz Oszako, Katarzyna Anna Kubiak, Marta Siebyła and Justyna Anna Nowakowska

Abstract

Slow Sand Filters (SSF) are a biological method used to protect nursery plants, from pathogen infections which can cause serious diseases in many forest tree species. Thanks to SSF application the number of phytopathogens in nurseries can be significantly reduced, as demonstrated by many field and greenhouse experiments (e.g. in Polish nurseries, and for horticultural crops in Germany and The Netherlands).

In this study, the effect of pollution from fertilizers and fungicides used in agriculture (e.g. PCNB) on the efficiency of SSFs was assessed. A quantitative analysis was performed of the copiotrophic and oligotrophic bacterial composition colonizing SSF biofilms. The efficiency with which selected Oomycete strains belonging to the genus Phytophthora (P. alni, P. cactorum, P. plurivora) were removed from water was determined based on genetic material (DNA of the organisms) found in the SSF filtrate. Specific primers and TaqMan probes (qPCR) appeared to be the most sensitive molecular methods. Moreover, the microbiological analysis of SSF biofilm performed with selective media allowed the growth of copiothrophic and oligothrophic bacteria to be estimated. The influence of fungicide (PCNB) and N-fertilizer on the number of bacteria in each biofilm was also evaluated.

The pollution of water with fertilizer (being used for plant irrigation) was demonstrated to reduce the efficiency of filtration more than fungicide addition (the amount of DNA from those investigated pathogens in the water decreased with time). The amount of bacteria in SSF biofilm readily increased after application of N-fertilizer in contrast to fungicide (PCNB) addition.

Open access

Tomasz Oszako, Jacek Olchowik, Adam Szaniawski, Stanisław Drozdowski and Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska

Open access

Miłosz Tkaczyk, Paweł Gul, Ireneusz Olejarski and Tomasz Oszako

Abstract

In accordance with the National Program for Increasing Forest Cover it is planned to augment Poland’s forest cover to 30% by 2020. This task involves afforestation of agricultural lands by pioneer species that have low habitat requirements, such as the silver birch or the Scots pine. Application of sawdust, clear cutting residues, compost bark and compost beneath tree roots contributed to better development of the assimilation apparatus. The use of mineral fertilizer stimulated tree growth as well as improved physical and chemical properties of soil.

Open access

Justyna A. Nowakowska, Anna Tereba and Tomasz Oszako

Open access

Tomasz Oszako, Katarzyna Sikora, Małgorzata Borys, Katarzyna A. Kubiak and Miłosz Tkaczyk

Abstract

In the last decades, a new wave of oak decline has been observed in Poland. The most important pathogenic organisms involved in this phenomenon are probably soil-borne pathogens Phytophthoragenus, especially P. quercina. In this work, we sought to test the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on the susceptibility of oaks (Quercus robur L.) to infection by P. quercina. In order to test the susceptibility of oak fine roots to infection, we applied phosphite-based fertiliser Actifos in 0.6% concentration. One-year-old oak seedlings were grown for one year in greenhouse with either an ambient atmosphere (400 ppm CO2) or an elevated (800 ppm) concentration of CO2. Oaks grown at the elevated CO2 concentration developed longer shoots as proved by statistically significant differences. However, there was no difference in the development of root systems. The application of Actifos had a positive significant effect on the development of shoots and the surface area of fine roots under the elevated CO2 concentration.