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Open access

Dariusz Mikielewicz, Tomasz Muszyński and Jarosław Mikielewicz

Model of heat transfer in the stagnation point of rapidly evaporating microjet

The paper presents investigation into the single water microjet surface cooling producing evaporating film. Reported tests were conducted under steady state conditions. Experiments were conducted using the nozzle size of 70 and 100 μm respectively. In the course of investigations obtained were experimental relations between heat flux and wall superheating. It was proved that the phenomenon is similar to that of pool boiling but the boiling curves are showing a smaller value of critical heat flux (CHF) that the stagnant pool boiling. Values of CHF are also reduced with decreasing liquid subcooling. Theoretical model of surface cooling by evaporating microjet impingement in the stagnation point was described theoreticaly. Results of experiments were compared with predictions by the model showing a good consistency.

Open access

Rafał Andrzejczyk and Tomasz Muszyński

Abstract

In this study, the influences of different parameters at performance two-phase closed thermosiphon (TPCT) was presented. It has been confirmed that the working fluid, as well as operating parameters and fill ratio, are very important factors in the performance of TPCT. The article shows characteristics of gravitational tube geometries, as well as the technical characteristic of the most important system components, i.e., the evaporator/condenser. The experiment’s plan and the results of it for the two-phase thermosiphon for both evaluated geometries with varying thermal and fluid flow parameters are presented. Experiments were performed for the most perspective working fluids, namely: water, R134a, SES36, ethanol and HFE7100. Obtained research proves the possibility to use TPCT for heat recovery from the industrial waste water.

Open access

Rafał Andrzejczyk and Tomasz Muszyński

Abstract

The shell and coil heat exchangers are commonly used in heating, ventilation, nuclear industry, process plant, heat recovery and air conditioning systems. This type of recuperators benefits from simple construction, the low value of pressure drops and high heat transfer. In helical coil, centrifugal force is acting on the moving fluid due to the curvature of the tube results in the development. It has been long recognized that the heat transfer in the helical tube is much better than in the straight ones because of the occurrence of secondary flow in planes normal to the main flow inside the helical structure. Helical tubes show good performance in heat transfer enhancement, while the uniform curvature of spiral structure is inconvenient in pipe installation in heat exchangers. Authors have presented their own construction of shell and tube heat exchanger with intensified heat transfer. The purpose of this article is to assess the influence of the surface modification over the performance coefficient and effectiveness. The experiments have been performed for the steady-state heat transfer. Experimental data points were gathered for both laminar and turbulent flow, both for co current- and countercurrent flow arrangement. To find optimal heat transfer intensification on the shell-side authors applied the number of transfer units analysis.

Open access

Tomasz Muszyński and Sławomir Marcin Kozieł

Abstract

Two-dimensional numerical investigations of the fluid flow and heat transfer have been carried out for the laminar flow of the louvered fin-plate heat exchanger, designed to work as an air-source heat pump evaporator. The transferred heat and the pressure drop predicted by simulation have been compared with the corresponding experimental data taken from the literature. Two dimensional analyses of the louvered fins with varying geometry have been conducted. Simulations have been performed for different geometries with varying louver pitch, louver angle and different louver blade number. Constant inlet air temperature and varying velocity ranging from 2 to 8 m/s was assumed in the numerical experiments. The air-side performance is evaluated by calculating the temperature and the pressure drop ratio. Efficiency curves are obtained that can be used to select optimum louver geometry for the selected inlet parameters. A total of 363 different cases of various fin geometry for 7 different air velocities were investigated. The maximum heat transfer improvement interpreted in terms of the maximum efficiency has been obtained for the louver angle of 16 ° and the louver pitch of 1.35 mm. The presented results indicate that varying louver geometry might be a convenient way of enhancing performance of heat exchangers.

Open access

Tomasz Muszyński, Rafał Andrzejczyk and Carlos A. Dorao

Abstract

The article presents detailed two-phase adiabatic pressure drops data for refrigerant R134a. Study cases have been set for a mass flux varying from 200 to 400 kg/m2s, at the saturation temperature of 19.4 °C. Obtained experimental data was compared with the available correlations from the literature for the frictional pressure drop during adiabatic flow. Influence of mixture preparation on pressure drop was investigated, for varying inlet subcooling temperature in the heated section. The flow patterns have also been obtained by means of a high-speed camera placed in the visualization section and compared with literature observations.

Open access

Maciej Combrzyński, Leszek Mościcki, Anita Kwaśniewska, Tomasz Oniszczuk, Agnieszka Wójtowicz, Bartosz Sołowiej, Bożena Gładyszewska and Siemowit Muszyński

Abstract

The aim of this work was to determine the water vapour sorption properties of thermoplastic starch filling foams processed by extrusion-cooking technique from various combinations of potato starch and two foaming agents: poly(vinyl) alcohol and Plastronfoam, in amount of 1, 2 and 3% each. Foams were processed with the single screw extruder-cooker at two different screw rotational speeds 100 and 130 r.p.m. The sorption isotherms of samples were determined and described using the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. Also, the kinetics of water vapour adsorption by foams, as a function of time, was measured and fitted with Peleg model. On the basis of the analysis the influence of the applied foaming agents, as well as the technological parameters of extrusion-cooking process in relation to water vapour adsorption by thermoplastic starch foams was demonstrated. There was no difference between the shapes of the isotherms for poly(vinyl) alcohol foams while for Plastronfoam foams a notable difference among foams extruded at 100 r.p.m. was observed in the regions of low and high humidity content. The analysis of the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model parameters showed that the water molecules were less strongly bound with the foam surface when extruded at a lower screw speed.

Open access

Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Siemowit Muszyński, Krzysztof Kostro, Iwona Taszkun, Andrzej Żmuda, Tomasz Blicharski and Monika Hułas-Stasiak

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue and mineral density of long bones in mink dams exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) since one day after mating, throughout gestation (ca. 46 d) and lactation to pelt harvesting. Material and Methods: Thirty clinically healthy multiparous minks (Neovison vison) of the standard dark brown type were used. After the mating, the minks were randomly assigned into two equal groups: nontreated control group and DON group fed wheat contaminated naturally with DON at a concentration of 1.1 mg·kg-1 of feed. Results: The final body weight and weight and length of the femur did not differ between the groups. However, DON contamination decreased mechanical endurance of the femur. Furthermore, DON reduced the mean relative wall thickness and vertical wall thickness of the femur, while vertical cortical index, midshaft volume, and cross-sectional moment of inertia increased. Finally, DON contamination did not alter bone tissue density, bone mineral density, or bone mineral content, but decreased the values of all investigated structural and material properties. Conclusion: DON at applied concentration probably intensified the process of endosteal resorption, which was the main reason for bone wall thinning and the weakening of the whole bone.

Open access

Ewa Tomaszewska, Siemowit Muszyński, Piotr Dobrowolski, Krzysztof Kostro, Iwona Taszkun, Andrzej Żmuda, Tomasz Blicharski and Paweł Kędzia

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON), given alone or with bentonite (which eliminates mycotoxicity) in the diet of mink dams throughout mating, pregnancy, and lactation period to pelt harvesting, on the mechanical properties and geometry of their long bones.

Material and Methods: The minks were randomly assigned into two groups: a control group (not supplemented with DON, n = 15) and a group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat and divided into three sub-groups (each sub-group n = 15), depending on bentonite dose: 0 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 alone; 2 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 and bentonite at a concentration of 2 kg 1000 kg−1; 0.5 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 and bentonite at a concentration of 0.5 kg 1000 kg−1.

Results: The DON treatment reduced the length of the femur compared to the control group and reduced the bone weight dependently on the amount of bentonite supplementation. However, DON treatment reduced the MRWT and CI of the femur, irrespective of the bentonite supplementation, compared to the control. The total BTD and BMC decreased in all DON-treated groups (irrespective of the bentonite supplementation). Furthermore, the densitometric analysis showed that the main changes in BMD and BMC indicated bone loss in the proximal and distal parts of bone covering the trabecular bone; whereas when bentonite was given at the dose of 2 kg 1000 kg−1 an increase in the whole BMD and BMC was observed in the femoral midshaft.

Conclusion: Analysis of the geometrical parameters seems to indicate that endosteal resorption was delayed after bentonite supplementation. The addition of bentonite diminished the DON action on bone homeostasis in the mink dams. Thus bentonite could prevent DON-induced bone loss in a dose-dependent manner.