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Łukasz Pardela and Tomasz Kowalczyk

Abstract

The objective of the study was to estimate the variation of soil water retention on the site of a historical bunker, an element of the former Wrocław Fortress in Poland. Measurements of soil moisture in the study area were taken in the period from March to September, 2017. Measurements of volumetric soil moisture were taken by means of a hand-held gauge, type FOM/mts with an FP/mts probe, operating on the basis of the reflectometric technique TDR. Soil moisture measurements realized in the vegetation period demonstrated that soil moisture resources in profiles situated in the section of the bunker varied within the range of 37–135 mm in the layer of 50 cm, and 66–203 mm in the layer of 100 cm. The maximum differences of the average value of soil moisture of the soil profiles studied in the period covered by the measurements were 31 mm and 56 mm, respectively. This indicates a significant differentiation of the retention properties of soils used for the construction of individual shelter areas.

Open access

Tomasz Kowalczyk, Artur Pliszko and Szymon M. Drobniak

Abstract

Persicaria nepalensis (L.) Mill. is an annual herb occurring natively in South, East and Southeast Asia, having a range extending from Oceania to East Africa. Here we report the first Polish stand of this species, found in 2011 near Baligród (Western Bieszczady Mountains), followed by the discovery of two more stands in the surrounding area up to 2013. The floristic composition of vegetation impacted by P. nepalensis is presented, and the invasive potential and pathways of introduction of the species are briefly discussed.

Open access

Romuald Żmuda, Szymon Szewrański, Tomasz Kowalczyk, Łukasz Szarawarski and Michał Kuriata

Landscape alteration in view of soil protection from water erosion - an example of the Mielnica watershed

The paper pertains to landscape management in eroded areas. Erosion processes, especially water erosion of soils, change the existing landscapes and make them less attractive or even hostile to people. Such situation calls for protective actions e.g. an appropriate management of agricultural landscape to minimise negative consequences of such phenomena. The paper presents a concept of counter-erosion measures to be implemented in the Trzebnickie Hills and comments their effect on the landscape. The concept was applied to an agricultural watershed of the Mielnica River. Particular attention was paid to visual aspect of this landscape and to functioning of its elements. Changes in the landscape were visualised and set up with the present status of the watershed.

Open access

Tomasz Kowalczyk, Paweł Ziółkowski and Janusz Badur

Abstract

The conversion of a waste heat energy to electricity is now becoming one of the key points to improve the energy efficiency in a process engineering. However, large losses of a low-temperature thermal energy are also present in power engineering. One of such sources of waste heat in power plants are exhaust gases at the outlet of boilers. Through usage of a waste heat regeneration system it is possible to attain a heat rate of approximately 200 MWth, under about 90 °C, for a supercritical power block of 900 MWel fuelled by a lignite. In the article, we propose to use the waste heat to improve thermal efficiency of the Szewalski binary vapour cycle. The Szewalski binary vapour cycle provides steam as the working fluid in a high temperature part of the cycle, while another fluid – organic working fluid – as the working substance substituting conventional steam over the temperature range represented by the low pressure steam expansion. In order to define in detail the efficiency of energy conversion at various stages of the proposed cycle the exergy analysis was performed. The steam cycle for reference conditions, the Szewalski binary vapour cycle as well as the Szewalski hierarchic vapour cycle cooperating with a system of waste heat recovery have been comprised.

Open access

Anna Miechówka, Tomasz Zaleski and Elżbieta Kowalczyk

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine soil-forming processes in soils formed from the Magura sandstones (Carpathian flysch) under wooded spruce Plagiothecio-Piccetum tatricum in the Gorce Mts., southern Poland. The research focused on distribution of non-silicate forms of iron and aluminum in soil profiles. The content of pyrophosphate, oxalate, and dithionite phases of iron and aluminum in the genetic horizons of four soil profiles was measured and selected pedogenic factors were calculated. Based on the obtained results podzolization and brunification are dominant soil-forming processes in the studied soils. The brunification effect was more common in the soils under the large share of Athyrium distentifolium, whereas podzolization predominates in the soils where Vaccinium myrtillus prevails in forest floor. Studied soils were classified as Dystric Endoskeletic Cambisol (Loamic, Humic), Dystric Cambisol (Siltic, Humic) and Skeletic Folic Albic Podzol (Arenic).

Open access

T. Stenzel, D. Dziewulska, M. Śmiałek, B. Tykałowski, J. Kowalczyk and A. Koncicki

Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop rapid molecular assays for differentiating vaccine strains Ma5 and 4/91 of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Specific primers and probes for S1 and N genes were designed based on the nucleotide sequences of both vaccine strains. Cross-reactivity was not observed. Assay sensitivity was 2.373 × 103 copies of the Ma5 strain, and 3.852 x 103 copies of the 4/91 strain. Samples belonging to a known genotype demonstrated that the designed assays supported rapid and sensitive detection of Ma5 and 4/91 vaccine strains of IBV.