New and rare species of the Gamasida (Acari) in the Polish fauna, recorded in ‘Bagno Stawek’ Reserve (Tuchola Forest, northern Poland)
As a result of 3-year studies of gamasid mites (Acari) from ‘Bagno Stawek’ Reserve (in the Zaborski Landscape Park), 4 rare species were identified: Platyseius subglaber (Oudemans, 1903), Stylochirus giganteus (Willmann, 1938), Uroobovella minima (Koch, 1841), and Veigaia transisalae (Oudemans, 1902). Among them, S. giganteus is new to the fauna of Poland.
Contribution to the diversity of soil mites (Acari, Gamasida) in southern Croatia (Dalmatia), with some ecological and zoogeographical notes
The species diversity of soil gamasid mites (Acari) in southern Croatia (Dalmatia) was studied in August 2002. In the Krka National Park, Brač Island, and near the town of Makarska, 320 samples were collected from various microhabitats: soil, grass and moss ground cover, wet moss, needle litter, moss covering tree trunks, and decaying wood). Altogether, 2097 mites of 56 gamasid species were recorded. Dominant species were: Polyaspis patavinus (Brač Island), Zercon fageticola (Makarska), and Cheiroseius serratus (Krka National Park). Analyses of ecological preferences and zoogeographic distribution were made for Polyaspis patavinus, Cheiroseius serratus, Zercon fageticola, Z. berlesei, Z. athiasi, Asca nova and A. aphidioides.
The article presents the essence, goals and instruments of soft (informal, non-statutory) spatial planning, developed in the countries of Western Europe and relatively new in Poland. It targets areas with fuzzy borders (soft spaces) and areas between administration tiers. The article presents conceptual issues and non-formal planning tools used in Western Europe. The planning approaches which are generally described as “soft” are characterised by non-formalised and non-binding procedures, and by their focus on achieving a consensus. In the first part of the article presents the conceptual issues and further informal planning instruments used in Western European countries at different spatial scales The following section presents deficits of spatial planning of metropolitan areas and - against this background - the legitimacy of creating informal plans in Poland, using Metropolia Poznań as an example
Diversity of the Mesostigmata (Acari) in tree-hollows of selected deciduous tree species
Rich gamasid communities were found in tree-hollows of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata), and white willow (Salix alba) in urban and rural areas in northern Poland (Bydgoszcz and its environs). We recorded there 93 gamasid species of 21 families in a total of 18 tree-hollows. Differences in the dominance structure of gamasid communities at the levels of family and species indicated dissimilarities in the mite communities, depending on tree species and intensity of human impact. The chestnut tree-hollows in both areas were dominated by mites of the family Urodinychidae (with the dominant Uroobovella pyriformis in both cases). The lime tree-hollows were colonized mostly by the Trematuridae (Trichuropoda ovalis) and the Digamasellidae (Dendrolaelaps tenuipilus) in the rural area, whereas by the Ascidae (Iphidozercon gibbus) in the city. The gamasid communities of willow hollows were dominated by the Trematuridae (Trichouropoda ovalis) in the urban area, and by the Digamasellidae (Dendrolaelaps longifallax, D. zwoelferi) in the rural area. Some rare species (e.g. Microgynium rectangulatum or Microsejus truncicola) were also recorded, mostly in the rural area.
Abundance dynamics of mites (Acari) in the peatland of ‘Linie’ Nature Reserve, with particular reference to the Gamasida
The research was conducted in ‘Linie’ Nature Reserve within the Lower Vistula Valley Land-scape Park in central Poland. We analysed the annual abundance dynamics of soil mites as well as changes in gamasid community parameters (abundance, age structure, species diversity). Density changes among the juvenile Gamasida greatly influenced the annual abundance dynamics of mites belonging to that order. Alternations in the abundance dynamics of Platyseius italicus and Zercon zelawaiensis were connected to the appearance of males as well as the density increase in juvenile specimens of those species.
Since the 1990s, large urban agglomerations in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have shown highly dynamic functional and spatial changes resulting from the transformation of their political systems. The aim of this study is to present differences in social, economic and environmental living conditions among the communes of a single agglomeration. This, in turn, allows a discussion, in the first place, of local factors, assuming that national and regional conditions in a given area are uniform. The study focused on the agglomeration of Poznań, which consists of the city of Poznań and 17 surrounding communes (Polish: gmina) forming the district, or ‘poviat’ (Polish: powiat) of Poznań. The analysis of variations in living conditions uses a set of nine indicators reflecting the local level of development in social, economic and environmental terms. The results lead to the conclusion that the development of urbanisation processes in suburban areas over the past 20 years has had a significant share in improving the living conditions of their inhabitants. In some communes they are, in fact, better than in the central city of Poznań
The aim of this paper is to present the genesis and the development of two models of the “leading path” to the integrated management of functional urban areas of voivodeship centres (FUA VC) in Poland in the context of the implementation of the new instrument of the EU’s Cohesion Policy – Integrated Territorial Investments (ITIs). The implementation of ITIs is presented in the light of the inter-commune cooperation in FUA VC, which has been realised variously so far. As examples of the “leading path” to the integrated management based on the ITI, two functional areas have been selected, differing in this respect, Poznań in western Poland (an example of a bottom-up model) and Lublin in its eastern part (an example of a top-down model). In the conclusion, the instrument of ITI was evaluated as a factor which initiates, deepens or complicates the cooperation of local governments in FUAs. It has been emphasised, that in spite of the creation of organisational and financial instruments (ITIs) which activate the cooperation of self-governments in functional areas, one must take into account the need for legislative changes which give a special status to metropolitan areas, income sources and specific powers.
The study employs numerical calculations in the characterization of reservoir sandstone samples based on high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography. The major goals were to determine porosity through pore size distribution, permeability characterization through pressure field, and structure impact on rock strength by simulation of a uniaxial compression test. Two Miocene samples were taken from well S-3, located in the eastern part of the Carpathian Foredeep. Due to the relation between sample size and image resolution, two X-ray irradiation series with two different sample sizes were performed. In the first approach, the voxel side was 27 μm and in the second it was up to 2 μm. Two samples from different depths have been studied here. Sample 1 has petrophysical features of conventional reservoir deposits, in contrast to sample 2. The approximate grain size of sample 1 is in the range 0.1-1.0 mm, whereas for sample 2 it is 0.01-0.1 mm with clear sedimentation lamination and heterogenic structure. The porosity, as determined by μCT, of sample 1 is twice (10.3%) that of sample 2 (5.3%). The equivalent diameter of a majority of pores is less than 0.027 mm and their pore size distribution is unimodal right-hand asymmetrical in the case of both samples. In relation to numerical permeability tests, the flow paths are in the few privileged directions where the pressure is uniformly decreasing. Nevertheless, there are visible connections in sample 1, as is confirmed by the homogenous distribution of particles in the pore space of the sample and demonstrated in the particle flow simulations. The estimated permeability of the first sample is approximately four times higher than that of the second one. The uniaxial compression test demonstrated the huge impact of even minimal heterogeneity of samples in terms of micropores: 4-5 times loss of strength compared to the undisturbed sample. The procedure presented shows the promising combination of microstructural analysis and numerical simulations. More specific calculations of lab tests with analysis of variable boundary conditions should be performed in the future.
The dynamic development of the world economy entails an increasing exchange of goods and population. This means that we are globally struggling with increasing levels of nosocomial infections. The increasing use of antimicrobial agents triggers the microorganisms’ immune system, which in turn contributes to the increasing amount of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, making it necessary to control the development of unwanted microorganisms, including bacteria, especially those carried on the body and clothing.
Currently, there is no unique method to combat the multiplication of microorganisms and eliminate threats to human health and life. For this reason, this article describes the possibilities of using graphene materials as a potential additive materials in fiber finishes as an antibacterial aspect in various areas of life. However, the literature does not explain the mechanisms behind the antibacterial properties of graphene, strongly limiting its textile application. The research is conducted using molecular dynamic simulations of interaction between graphene materials and murein. The obtained results suggest the electrostatic mechanism of blocking the growth and division of bacteria. Due to the physical interaction, bacterial cell becomes “trapped” without changing its growth parameters. This may lead to an increase of internal cell pressure, rupture of its wall and consequently its death.