Ongoing climate change is mainly evident as increased in average temperature. It is expected to have a significant impact on world’s biomes, with forest ecosystems especially vulnerable to these changes. The effect of climate change on forests is both indirect, through its impact on various tree species of different ecological requirements, and direct, through its impact on all living components of the forest ecosystem. Among the latter, insects are the group of the greatest importance, including species detrimental to forest health. The impact of climate change on forest insects may be reflected in their distribution, phenology, activity, number of generations and, indirectly, through impact on their natural enemies. Predicting the future direction and pace of the climate change, as well as direct and indirect consequences of its effect on forest insects is difficult and often subject to considerable inaccuracy. The paper presents a review of data from the published literature in this area of study. The influence of the basic climate parameters, temperature and humidity, on forest herbivore insects is discussed, particularly in the context of the most probable scenarios of climate change, i.e. the gradual increase in the average temperature. Observed and projected impacts of climate change in relation to the influence of herbivorous insects on forest ecosystems are characterized. We present some of the possible adaptation strategies of forest management to the expected climate changes.
The authors carried out the analysis of changes in the plant overgrowth of the lakes based on cartographic materials. Among 6 793 lakes with the area exceeding 1 ha located in the lakelands of Northern Poland, 893 lakes were selected for the analysis. The lakes were selected on the grounds of the existing bathymetric plans and information on their overgrowth and depth relations. Over the last 50 years lake area declined by 1.9% (from 140 975.0 ha do 138 273.7 ha) and so did the lake area covered with emergent plants, i.e. by 0.27% (from 11 219.0 ha down to 10 637.2 ha). Emergent plants cover on average 7.69% of the lake area. In the case of the lakes of smaller areas (below 80 ha) or medium areas (80÷200 ha) the extent of plant overgrowth was 14.3 and 9.6% respectively. The article presents two indicators which determine plant overgrowth of the lakes. These are the coefficient of overgrowing the lakes (%) and the coefficient of overgrowing the shoreline (ha·km-1). These coefficients make it possible to study the extent of lake overgrowing in the South Baltic Lakeland, regardless the direction of these changes.
Purposes: The main goal of the paper is to determine the significance of selected sources of strategic information, used by Polish farmers in decision making. In addition, an attempt was made to determine the factors impacting the evaluation of those sources among the traits of the farmer and his farm.
Methodology: Data was gathered using the questionnaire method and analysed with standard tools of descriptive statistics.
Findings: The farmers deemed personalised sources of strategic information the most important, especially agricultural advisers, input suppliers and buyers of agricultural products. From among institutional (non-personalised) sources, local government and the chamber of agriculture were significant. Business information agencies and survey companies are the least important sources for farmers. The characteristics of the surroundings of the farm - specifically, its geographic location and the size of settlement where it is located proved to have the widest impact on the evaluation of the sources included in the study. From among the organisational factors, only farm size has a significant impact.
Research limitations/implications: The study was confined to a representative group of farmers in Poland. A closed list of sources of strategic information was used.
Originality/value: The study results contribute to the knowledge on the functioning of Polish agriculture and may also be used in comparative studies, characterising this sector’s diversity within Europe. They can in turn contribute to properly focusing on supporting the policy of balanced agriculture development in the EU.
Investigations of the surface layer characteristics of selected kinds of low-alloy high-speed steel after grinding were carried out. They were carried out on the flat-surface grinder with a 95A24K grinding wheel without cooling. The influence of grinding parameters was defined especially for: the quantity of secondary austenite, surface roughness, microhardness and grinding efficiency with a large range of grinding parameters: grinding depth 0.005–0.035 mm, lengthwise feed 2–6 m/min, without a cross-feed on the whole width of the sample. It was found that improvement of grinding properties of low-alloy high-speed steels is possible by efficient selection of their chemical composition. The value of the grinding efficiency is conditioned by grinding forces, whose value has an impact on the grinding temperature. To ensure high quality of the tool surface layer (i.e. a smaller amount of secondary austenite, lack of wheel burn and micro-cracks) in the case of sharpening of tools made of low-alloy high-speed steel, the grinding temperature should be as low as possible.
The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using CFD technique as a diagnostic tool of a malfunctioning Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Hydrogen starvation of a SOFC due to nitrogen dilution is one of the cell dysfunctions and can lead to its degradation. Identification of the starvation point allows to improve cell performance and establish the best conditions for degradation tests. To illustrate a potential of the CFD tool, several simulations of a single planar SOFC and its behaviour under hydrogen starvation were performed and analysed. The results showed that at lower cell voltage values of 0.3 and 0.5 V significant gradients in the electric current were noticed due to a local reduction in hydrogen concentration. The CFD analysis allowed defining desirable mass flow rate of hydrogen to SOFCs to avoid fuel starvation. The model constitutes a helpful tool for optimizing cell design and operational conditions.
The aim of the work was to develop a mathematical model for computing the steady-state voltage – current characteristics of a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and to determine the performance of a new SOFC design. The design involves cross-flow bipolar plates. Each of the bipolar plates has an air channel system on one side and a fuel channel system on the other side. The proposed model was developed using the ANSYS-Fluent commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software supported by additional Fuel Cell module. The results confirm that the model can well simulate the diagonal current path. The effects of temperature and gas flow through the channels and a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) structure were taken into account. It was shown that a significant increase of the MEA temperature at high current density can lead to hot spots formation and hence electrode damage.
The paper presents the results of bathymetric mapping of selected tidewater glaciers in the St. Jonsfjorden (Svalbard) between 2004 and 2007. We also used the bathymetric data collected by the Norwegian Hydrographic Service (NHS) as well as the shaded relief images based on them. The most clearly visible traces in submarine marginal zones of the glaciers come from the Little Ice Age (LIA), i.e. the cooling period which in the area of St. Jonsfjorden might have ended no later than about 1900. At the beginning of the 20th century, i.e. during a warm period, the glaciers of St. Jonsfjorden reached their maximums. The youngest traces in the seafloor of the fjord and the bays date from this period, similar to the case of the land marginal zones. In front of the cliff of the Dahl Glacier there is a clearly visible zone of submarine moraines. It finishes exactly along the line of the LIA maximum. The sea-floor relief of the fjord and bays shows traces which we interpret as having been formed during the Late Weichselian (13-10 ka B.P.). At that time, the Dahl Glacier advanced onto the northern part of Hermansenøya; its main stream passed to the north of the island. Simultaneously, the Konow-Osborne Glacier terminated 2 to 4 km from the fjord mouth, leaving about 15 km2 of the fjord ice-free.