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  • Author: Tomasz Bąk x
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The Counter-Terrorist System Of Romania

Abstract

This article presents the counter-terrorist system adopted in Romania. The problem of terrorism is one of the challenges within security issues which the European Union is facing. Only lasting, strong cooperation may lead to combating international terrorism, and one of the countries which attempt to do that is Romania. For such actions to be successful, suitable legal solutions have been implemented and adequate structures and units established with the purpose of fighting terrorism. An enormous role belongs moreover to international cooperation and maintaining good relations between various states within terrorism prevention. The Author focuses in particular on the forms and methods of combating terrorism on various planes.

Open access
Manners of Performing Terrorist Attacks

Abstract

The article below presents the evolution of terrorist tactics over the years. It describes the basic types of terrorist attacks divided by the place of attack and by means used to execute it. The recent ways of performing terrorist attacks by terrorist organizations have been presented on the basis of accessible sources and statistics. The last part of the article is dedicated to expected changes of terrorist attack tactics in the future.

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Polish - Romanian Military Cooperation

Abstract

Reborn after WWI, Poland needed to secure its borders properly against a potential enemy. As a result of the undertaken negotiations, the state strengthened the protection of its eastern border with a Polish-Romanian alliance. Before WWII, Romania was an important ally of Poland in the region and the only neighbour with whom Poland had a good relationship. Currently, both states are members of the EU and NATO, and their interests in security converge, especially in the face of deteriorating security in Eastern Europe. Closer military cooperation is also favoured by extensive political contacts and increasing expenditure on defence in both those states. In fact, Romania may well become the main ally of our country in the region within the next few years

Open access
The Effect of Various Storage Methods on Organoleptic Quality of Bee Pollen Loads

The Effect of Various Storage Methods on Organoleptic Quality of Bee Pollen Loads

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of storing frozen pollen loads in controlled and/or air atmosphere, on organoleptic properties of the product. Collected pollen loads were cleared of mechanical impurities and preserved as follows: frozen and stored in air atmosphere; frozen and stored in an artificial atmosphere of a carbon dioxide and nitrogen mixture (30% CO2, 70% N2); frozen and stored in pure nitrogen (100% N2); frozen and stored using a vacuum system; dried out at ca. 40°C and stored in air atmosphere.

In an organoleptic study, all tested pollen samples, irrespective of their storage method, were evaluated positively. The studied storage factors did not affect the shape, specific identity or aroma of pollen loads. The average point scores obtained for these features were similar in all groups. Storage conditions did influence the color and flavor of stored pollen loads. The experiment revealed significant differences in the perception of taste and aroma of tested pollen samples depending in the sex of the testing person. The taste and aroma of pollen loads were more appealing to men than to women testers.

Open access
The Wave of Migration in Europe as a Cause of Terrorist Threat

Abstract

The article presents the migration wave in Europe as the cause of terrorist threats. The conflicts in the Middle East, particularly in Iraq and in Syria, increase the numbers of refugees from those areas and their migration to European countries, mainly EU members. That wave is used by terrorist organisations to smuggle members of those organisations to Europe in order to prepare terrorist attacks. The author also indicated the difficulty in controlling such a huge wave of refugees in the aspect of ensuring security in European countries.

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Actions of the Islamic State (ISIS) in Europe

Abstract

This article contains information on the activities of a terrorist organisation — the Islamic State (ISIS) — in Europe. Organisational structures of this association, as well as principles of its functioning and preparation of terrorist attacks have been described. The paper also presents a quantitative list of the attacks carried out in Europe in recent years. An important element of the article is the description of actions taken against ISIS by individual European countries.

Open access