The paper deals with the possibilities of company goodwill valuation and verification. The value of company goodwill is still an actual issue for the scientific community. Goodwill as an economic phenomenon has attracted the attention of economic experts since the nineteenth century. Nowadays, there are many approaches to goodwill valuation. However, its identification and quantification are still a challenge. The paper aim is to identify significant sources of company goodwill creation and their verification on the sample of 2 European countries with the similar business environment, political stability and regulatory platform - Slovak and Czech companies. The sample for the identification of significant sources of company goodwill creation consists of the financial statements of Slovak companies in 2015. The sample for data verification consists of the financial statements of Slovak and Czech companies in 2016. The paper identifies the determinants of goodwill creation by multiple regression analysis. The paper also verifies the total explanatory power of these determinants by matrixes of changes. Volatility and deviation of the results are captured by descriptive statistical methods. The paper’s results point to a necessity to identify the key determinants of goodwill creation. They bring the construction of an econometric model for company goodwill valuation. It could be used to compute the value of company goodwill of the individual companies in the Slovak economic conditions.
Bankruptcy models are used to assess credit risk and predict financial situation to indicate the probable bankruptcy of the company. Contribution deals with the application of chosen bankruptcy models in analysing and predicting the financial health of selected companies. Most of the models have been developed abroad. In case of Slovak Republic, its application and correctness of the results can be problematic; therefore, we have focused primarily on those that have emerged in countries with a similar economy. We have calculated the selected prediction models in a sample of 500 Slovak enterprises. Predictive ability lower than 64% is considered as unfavourable. As part of the contribution, based on expert literature and relevant legislation, we have defined the criteria that allow to divide businesses into two groups: prosperous and non-prosperous. In the end, we compared the results of the selected models with the inclusion of enterprises in a prosperous and non- prosperous group based on the criteria set by us. We also dealt with examining of error types I (when an enterprise in bad financial condition is included in a non-bankruptcy group) and II (when an enterprise in good financial condition is included in a bankruptcy group). The aim is to analyse the predictive ability of the selected bankruptcy models.
Background and Purpose: Models of identifying and predicting earnings management in companies by using accruals are in general based on the dependence between total assets of companies and various profit measures. In this paper, we focused on an initial dependency analysis between these business indicators in the Visegrad group’s business entities. We explore the mentioned relationships, verify, and quantify the strength of the dependencies between earnings levels of companies (in terms of economic evaluation of the return on business capital in absolute terms) and the value of their total assets (i.e. business capital tied in the assets without its further classification and analysis).
Methodology: We use descriptive statistics as well as a correlation analysis based on the real business data on almost 300 thousand companies in the V4 countries from the Amadeus database, covering the period from 2013 to 2017. Finally, we use a comparative analysis to identify disproportion among the results that were found out for each of the analysed countries.
Results: The analysis showed that Slovak companies have the average values of profit measures and total assets comparable to Hungarian companies. Czech and Polish companies have several times higher average values of profit measures and also of total assets than Slovak and Hungarian companies. The analysis of the development of the profit measures and the total assets of the companies over the years showed significant differences across the four countries during the period covered by this study.
Conclusion: The analysis of relationships between total assets of the companies and their profit measures showed that the strength of these dependencies among countries is very similar, and over the years, these results did not change. The results of this study can be further used in the creation of the earnings management model in enterprises, both in Slovakia and in other V4 countries.
The main purpose of the paper was the structural analysis of the connections network used by a railway carrier Koleje Dolnośląskie S.A. operating in southern Poland. The analysis used simulation methods. The analysis and simulation were based on graph theory, which is successfully used in analysing a wide variety of networks (social, biological, computer, virtual and transportation networks). The paper presents indicators which allow judging the analysed connections network according to an appropriate level of transport services. Simulation results allowed proposing some modifications for the improvement of the analysed connections network. The paper also demonstrates that graph theory and network simulations should be used as tools by transportation companies during the stage of planning a connections network.