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Tomáš Mikuš, Julian Kondela, Stanislav Jacko and Stanislava Milovská

Abstract

The article presents the first description of a complete and continuous series from berthierite to garavellite sulphosalts in the Western Carpathians. Berthierite is a common main or accessory phase of Sb mineralizations in the Western Carpathians, and occurs at many localities and ore deposits as well. On the other side, garavellite or Bi-rich berthierite is a relatively rare accessory phase. The highest Bi content in garavellite reaches up to 38.04 wt. % which represents 0.90 apfu, and its crystallochemical formula can be written as Fe0.97Sb1.07Bi0.90S3.98. Raman band shifts were observed in the isomorphic berthierite–garavellite series. Garavellite occurs in the younger stages of sulphidic mineralization, and associates with tetrahedrite, berthierite, Bi-chalcostibite, Sb-bismuthinite, Bi-stibnite, ullmanite and cinnabarite. It creates irregular grains and veinlets in pre-existing tetrahedrite, or forms myrmekite intergrowths with chalcopyrite in tetrahedrite. Bi content in chalcostibite is up to 0.20 apfu. Besides the tetrahedrite, pre-existing sulphosalts are the members of the tintinaite–kobellite series, Bi-jamesonite and bournonite. The Sb/(Sb+Bi) ratio of minerals of the tintinaite–kobellite series varies from 0.37 to 0.80. The maximum content of Bi in jamesonite is up to 1.22 apfu. A vertical zonation at the ore vein body (mining levels 6 / 180 a.s.l., 8 / 80 a.s.l., 10 / 20 b.s.l.) is represented by the Sb decrease along with the Bi increase with increasing depth. Bi content continuously decreases during the older ore mineralization stage and Sb increases at the younger mineralization stage. Both of the stages have been enriched by Sb as well.

Open access

Roman Aubrecht, Štefan Méres, Milan Sýkora and Tomáš Mikuš

Provenance of the detrital garnets and spinels from the Albian sediments of the Czorsztyn Unit (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

According to earlier concepts, the Czorsztyn Unit (Oravic Superunit, Pieniny Klippen Belt, Western Carpathians) sedimented on the isolated Czorsztyn Swell which existed in the Middle Jurassic-Late Cretaceous time in the realm of the Outer Western Carpathians. This paper brings new data providing an alternative interpretation of its Cretaceous evolution. They are based on heavy mineral analysis of the Upper Aptian/Lower Albian sediments of the Czorsztyn Unit. They rest upon a karstified surface after a Hauterivian-Aptian emersion and are represented by condensed, red marly organodetritic limestones with some terrigenous admixture (Chmielowa Formation). The heavy mineral spectrum is dominated by spinels, followed by garnet, with lesser amounts of zircon, rutile and tourmaline. The composition of the majority of the detrital garnets shows that they were derived from primary HP/UHP parental rocks which were recrystallized under granulite and amphibolite facies conditions. The garnets were most probably derived directly from the magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Oravic basement, as the high-pyrope garnets are known to be abundant in Mesozoic sediments all over the Outer Western Carpathians. The presence of spinels is surprising. According to their chemistry, they were mostly derived from mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORB) peridotites, supra-subduction zone peridotites (harzburgites) and transitional lherzolite/harzburgite types. Only a lesser amount of spinels was derived from volcanics of BABB composition (back-arc basin basalts). The presence of this ophiolitic detritus in the Czorsztyn Unit is difficult to explain. Ophiolitic detritus appeared in the Aptian/Albian time only in the units which were considered to be more distant, because they were situated at the boundary between the Central and the Outer Western Carpathians (Klape Unit, Tatric and Fatric domains). The hypothetical Exotic Ridge which represented an accretionary wedge in front of the overriding Western Carpathian internides was considered to be a source of the clastics. In previous paleogeographical reconstructions, the Czorsztyn Unit was situated north of the Pieniny Trough (considered to be one of the branches of the Penninic-Vahic Ocean). In the trough itself, the ophiolitic detritus appeared as late as in the Senonian and there was no way it could reach the Czorsztyn Swell which was considered to be an isolated elevation. The new results presented herein show that these reconstructions do not fit the obtained data and infer a possibility that the Czorsztyn sedimentary area was not isolated in the Cretaceous time and it was situated closer to the Central Carpathian units than previously thought. A new paleogeographical model of the evolution of the Pieniny Klippen Belt is presented in the paper: Oravic segment was derived from the Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif by the Middle Jurassic rifting which caused block tilting where most of the Oravic units were arranged north of the Czorsztyn Swell. The Oravic segment was situated in the lateral continuation of the Central and Inner Western Carpathians from which it was detached by later clockwise rotation. The Oravic segment was then laterally shifted in front of the Central Western Carpathians, together with remnants of the Meliatic suture zone which represented a source for the exotics to the Klape, Tatric, Fatric and Oravic units.

Open access

Marian Janák, Tomáš Mikuš, Pavel Pitoňák and Ján Spišiak

Eclogites overprinted in the granulite facies from the Ďumbier Crystalline Complex (Low Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians)

Metabasites with evidence for breakdown of former eclogites and recrystallization under granulite facies conditions occur in the Ďumbier Crystalline Complex of the Low Tatra Mountains, Central Western Carpathains. Textural relationships, phase equilibrium modelling and thermobarometry have been used to determine the P-T evolution of these rocks. Omphacite diagnostic for the eclogites facies stage is absent but its former presence is inferred from the symplectitic intergrowths of clinopyroxene + plagioclase. The re-equilibration in high-pressure granulite facies conditions is demonstrated by the assemblage garnet + clinopyroxene (< 10 % Jd) + plagioclase + quartz. The phase equilibrium modelling using THERIAK-DOMINO program and conventional geothermobarometry suggest the P-T conditions of 750-760 °C and 1.1-1.5 GPa for the high-pressure granulite stage. Orthopyroxene formed in the clinopyroxene + plagioclase symplectites and kelyphites and coronas around garnet at P-T conditions of ca. 0.7-1.0 GPa and 650-700 °C. P-T evolution of granulitized eclogites is interpreted as the result of two metamorphic events; early Variscan eclogite facies metamorphism was followed by granulite facies thermal overprint in the Carboniferous time. The second metamorphic event was crucial for breakdown of eclogites, these are only seldom preserved in the pre-Alpine basement of the Western Carpathians.

Open access

Ján Spišiak, Lucia Vetráková, David Chew, Štefan Ferenc, Tomáš Mikuš, Viera Šimonová and Peter Bačík

Abstract

Calc–alkaline lamprophyres are known from several localities in the Malá Fatra Mountains. They form dykes (0.5–3 m) of varying degree of alteration that have intruded the surrounding granitoid rocks which are often incorporated xenoliths. Clinopyroxenes (diopside to augite), amphiboles (kaersutitic), biotites (annite) and plagioclases are major primary minerals of the dykes, accessory minerals include apatite, ilmenite, rutile, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite. Apatite has a relatively low F, but increased Cl content compared to typical apatite from lamprophyres or magmatic apatite from granitic rocks in the Western Carpathians. The chemical composition of the lamprophyres indicates their calc–alkaline character, but affinity to alkaline lamprophyres is suggested by the Ti enrichment in clinopyroxene, amphibole and biotite. According to modal classification of the minerals, the studied rocks correspond to spessartite. The differences in the chemical composition of the rocks (including Sr and Nd isotopes) probably result from the contamination of primary magma by crustal material during magma ascent. The age of the lamprophyres, based on U/Pb dating in apatite, is 263.4 ± 2.6 Ma.