This paper presents results from investigations on the long-term influence of concrete surface and crack orientation on ingress in cracks. Five reinforced concrete structures from Norway exposed to either de-icing salts or seawater have been investigated. Concrete cores were taken with and without cracks from surfaces with vertical and horizontal orientation. Carbonation in cracks was found on all de-iced structures, and a crack on a completely horizontal surface appeared to facilitate chloride ingress. Ingress of substances from seawater was found in all cracks from marine exposure. However, the impact of cracks on chloride ingress was unclear. Horizontal cracks on vertical surfaces appeared to facilitate self-healing.
This study investigates the feasibility of using bauxite residue (BR) as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) for the cement and concrete industry. It is shown from pastes of BR and calcium hydroxide, that BR is highly pozzolanic in nature. The early hydration of cement pastes with BR is accelerated while long-term strength is reduced probably due to the alkaline nature of BR. To be used as cement replacement material in concrete, attempts have been made to reduce the alkali content of BR, in particular to reduce the chance of alkali-aggregate reactions. Co-calcination of BR with kaolin or washing and cooking of BR with calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide and gypsum resulted in considerable reduction of alkali content; up to 75%. At the same time the reactivity of the BR was reduced but still being higher compared to fly ash already used in the cement industry.
Several inspection methods can be used to assess the corrosion state of steel reinforcement in concrete. Especially for periodical field surveys and monitoring, non-destructive testing (NDT) methods are to be preferred as they do not cause any or very limited damage to the existing concrete. In this paper, the corrosion state of three reinforced concrete beams exposed to marine environment for 25 years was evaluated by measuring three parameters; electrochemical potential, concrete resistivity and corrosion rate. The measurements were performed with commercial devices. It was found that all devices are applicable for field inspections. Among the methods selected for the study, the electrochemical potential measured in a fine grid and analysed statistically offered the best possibility of evaluating the corrosion state; preferably in combination with selected excavations for determination of the level of corrosion.
Calcined clays are gaining increasing interest as future supplementary cementitious materials for the production of blended cements. Besides the mineralogy, the right production conditions can affect the pozzolanic activity of calcined clays. In this paper, the pozzolanic reactivity of two calcined natural clays in dependence of burning temperature, residence time in the furnace, cooling conditions and particle size of the final product is investigated. The highest pozzolanic reactivity was found at calcination temperatures between 600 and 800°C. While different cooling conditions had no identified effect on reactivity, decreased particle size and residence time increased the reactivity.