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Open access

Jian Tu, Ting Xue, Kezong Qi, Ying Shao, Boyan Huang, Xueyan Wang and Xiuhong Zhou


Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a major bacterial infectious disease that may lead to local or systemic infections in chickens with clinical manifestations. The irp2-fyuA gene cluster has been confirmed to be the main genes involved in the synthesis of HPI. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the irp2 and fyuA genes in the high pathogenicity island (HPI) of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) on its pathogenicity by knocking out these genes. The ΔAE17 (lacking irp2) and ΔΔAE17 (lacking irp2 and fyuA) strains of APEC were constructed. The ΔAE17 and ΔΔAE17 strains showed significantly impaired capacity to adhere onto DF-1 cells. The LD50 results indicated that the virulence of the ΔAE17 and ΔΔAE17 strains was decreased in comparison with that of the AE17 strain. We concluded that the knock-out of the core HPI genes weakened APEC adhesion onto DF-1 cells, inhibited transcription of virulence genes, and reduced pathogenicity in chicks. The effects of genetic deletion of irp2 and fyuA on APEC were more severe than those produced by deletion of irp2 only, indicating that irp2 and fyuA co-regulate APEC pathogenicity.

Open access

Lan-Ping Shi, Chun-Hong Liu, Jian-Fen Cao, Yan Lu, Fan-Xin Xuan, Yu-Ting Jiang and Jin-Yang Zhou



This study aimed to develop and apply a closed-loop medication administration system in a hospital in order to reduce medication administration errors (MAEs).


The study was implemented in four pilot general wards. We used a before-and-after design to collect oral medication administration times before and after the implementation of the closed-loop medication administration system, evaluated MAE alert logs after the intervention, and conducted a survey of the nurses’ satisfaction with the system in the pilot wards.


(a) Nursing time of oral medication administration: before the adoption of the closed-loop medication administration system, the average nursing time was 31.56 ± 10.88 minutes (n = 78); after the adoption of the system, the time was 18.74 ± 5.60 minutes (n = 54). Independent sample t-tests showed a significant difference between two groups (t = 8.85, P <0.00). (b) Degree of nurses’ satisfaction with the closed-loop medication administration system: 60.00% (n = 42) of nurses considered the system to be helpful for their work and nearly half of the nurses (47.14%, n = 33) believed that the system could facilitate clinical work and reduce workload; 51.43% (n = 36) believed that the system could reduce checking time and enhance work efficiency; 82.86% (n = 58) believed that the system was helpful in improving checking accuracy to reduce MAEs and ensure patient safety. More than 60% of the nurses considered the system to be a method that could help to track MAEs to improve nursing quality. (c) The MAE alert logs during observation period: it revealed only 27 alerts from the repeated scans of 3,428 instances of medication administration.


The nurses were satisfied with the closed-loop medication administration system because it improved their work efficiency and reduced their workload. The current investigation was limited by time; therefore, further research is needed to more closely examine the relationship between the system and MAEs.

Open access

Yan Y. Wu, Hui R. Jia, Qiang Wang, Ping L. Dai, Qing Y. Diao, Shu F. Xu, Xing Wang and Ting Zhou


China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives). Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.

Open access

Yi-ping Zhong, Xiao-ting Shen, Ying Ying, Hai-tao Wu, Jin Li, Quan Qi, Can-quan Zhou and Guang-lun Zhuang

Impact of Transitory Hyperprolactinemia on Clinical Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of serum prolactin concentration at the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration on the clinical outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). A total of 184 patients receiving the IVF-ET/ICSI-ET from October 2005 to March 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the serum prolactin concentration [<30 ng/mL (A), 30-60 ng/mL (B), 60-90 ng/mL (C), ≥90 ng/mL (D)] on the day of HCG administration during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). In the Groups A, B, C and D, the implantation rate was 11.76%, 19.71%, 12.72% and 2.22%, respectively, and the pregnancy rate (PR) was 25.00%, 42.70%, 27.30% and 5.88%, respectively. The implantation rate and PR in the Group D were markedly lower than those in the remaining groups (P=0.011 and 0.009). During the COS, the serum prolactin concentration was dramatically elevated when compared with the baseline level leading to transient hyperprolactinemia. In addition, the implantation rate and pregnancy rate were significantly markedly decreased when the serum prolactin concentration was remarkably increased (≥90 ng/mL). To improve the clinical pregnancy rate of IVF-ET, close monitoring and appropriate intervention are needed for patients with an abnormal prolactin level during the COS.

Open access

Yi-Xuan Hou, Chun Xie, Kang Wang, Yu-Ting Zhao, Yang-Yang Xie, Hong-Yan Shi, Jian-Fei Chen, Li Feng, Guang-Zhi Tong, Xiu-Guo Hua, Cong-Li Yuan, Yan-Jun Zhou and Zhi-Biao Yang


Introduction: A real-time RT-PCR method for identification and quantification of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) strains in China was developed.

Material and Methods: Based on the conserved sequence of the PEDV nucleocapsid (N) gene, a primer pair and probe were designed to establish a TaqMan-MGB real-time RT-PCR assay for quantitative detection of the virus. The sequence was cloned into the pMD18-T vector and a series of diluted recombinant plasmids were used to generate a standard curve with an R2 value of 0.999.

Results: The developed quantitative PCR assay detected viral titres as low as 0.1 TCID50 with high specificity and no cross-reaction with other porcine viruses (PoRV, TGEV, PRRSV, or CSFV). The intra-batch and inter-batch coefficients of variation were both less than 1%, which indicated good reproducibility. Thirty clinical diarrhoea samples obtained from pigs in Shanghai and Fujian were analysed using this quantitative PCR assay. Out of these samples, 93.3% were found to be PEDV positive.

Conclusion: This approach is suitable for clinical sample identification and pathogenesis studies.

Open access

Xin Yao, Ting Wu, Cheng Zhou, Yi-min Li, Feng-cai Zhu, Qiang Yan, Wei-jin Huang, Chuan Ji, Zheng-lun Liang and Jun-zhi Wang

Objective To investigate the prevalence and levels of anti-HEV IgG in the population of Jiangsu Province.

Methods Total of 2 656 samples from Qindong and 11 463 samples from Anfeng were colleted. The anti- HEV antibody was qualitatively and quantitatively detected using ELISA kits and the references had been established.

Results The positive rates of anti-HEV IgG in male and female were 55.6% and 40.1%, respectively. The positive rate of anti-HEV IgM in male and female were both 3.4%. In opposite to anti-HEV IgG, the positive rate of anti-HEV IgM in Anfeng was significant higher than that in Qindong. The mean anti-HEV IgG titers for 6 age groups were 0.94, 0.92, 1.07, 1.46, 1.27, 1.19 and 0.68, 1.31, 1.08, 1.14, 1.31, 1.68 IU/ml, in Qindong and Anfeng region, respectively. The positive rate of anti-HEV IgG tended to increase with age and the titer of anti- HEV IgG was associated with age (R > 0.90).

Conclusions The results in this study showed that HEV was widely prevalent in both Qindong and Anfeng of Jiansu Province and the prevalence and the anti-HEV IgG titer were associated with gender and age.