Nursing models at home and abroad for breast cancer patients during the perioperative period were screened, including eight types of models: the nursing model guided by self-care theory, the plan–do–check–act cycle combined with the four-in-one model, the peer support nursing model, the nursing model guided by transcultural theory, the multidisciplinary cooperative nursing model, the knowledge–attitude–practice nursing model, the safe nursing management model, and the case nursing model. These models were analyzed and described with the aim of providing a reference for the clinical breast surgery nursing staff in China and for promoting the development of nursing in China for breast cancer during the perioperative period.
The convergence rate and the continuous tracking precision are two main problems of the existing adaptive notch filter (ANF) for frequency tracking. To solve the problems, the frequency is detected by interpolation FFT at first, which aims to overcome the convergence rate of the ANF. Then, referring to the idea of negative feedback, an evaluation factor is designed to monitor the ANF parameters and realize continuously high frequency tracking accuracy. According to the principle, a novel adaptive frequency estimation algorithm based on interpolation FFT and improved ANF is put forward. Its basic idea, specific measures and implementation steps are described in detail. The proposed algorithm obtains a fast estimation of the signal frequency, higher accuracy and better universality qualities. Simulation results verified the superiority and validity of the proposed algorithm when compared with original algorithms.
Fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP), a glycolytic metabolite, has been reported to protect susceptible organs during hypoxia or ischemia. However, there is paucity of human data on its pharmacokinetics after being exogenously administered. In the current study, the preliminary pharmacokinetics of FDP given orally to humans was investigated, and no typical peak was observed in the serum drug-time curve. Then, the pharmacokinetic studies were performed following multiple doses of FDP in rats, and the Caco-2 monolayer model was used to study the absorption of FDP in vitro. The results suggested that plasma FDP concentration was significantly increased after oral multiple doses of 180 mg kg-1 but not 90 mg kg-1 of FDP, and FDP was partly depleted during the absorption, which was supposed to be consumed by the intestinal epithelium cells. Thus, we conclude that a high dose of FDP should be orally administered in order to get an effective plasma level.
This meta-analysis aimed to examine the effects of parental involvement in infant care in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).
PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database, and VIP database were searched till November 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) examining the effect of parental involvement in the NICU were considered for inclusion.
We included 10 studies (three RCTs, seven CCTs) with a total of 1,851 participants. The meta-analysis demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences on nosocomial infection between two groups (risk ratio [RR] = 0.90, 95% CI 0.63–1.30, P = 0.58). Compared with no parental involvement groups, parental involvement groups showed more weight gain (mean difference [MD] = 1.47, 95% CI 0.65–2.29, P < 0.05), higher breast-feeding rate (RR = 1.38, 95% C11.25–1.53, P < 0.05), lower readmission rate (RR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.15–0.80, P < 0.05), and higher satisfaction rate (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.16, P< 0.05).
Parental involvement in the NICU interventions could not increase the rate of nosocomial infection of neonates, but could improve their weight gain, breast-feeding and parental satisfaction and decrease their readmission. However, since the conclusion of this meta-analysis was drawn based on the limited number of high-quality RCTs, more high-quality studies should be conducted in the future to confirm its positive intervention effects.
Taking “sluicing” to be derived by movement + deletion, as represented by Merchant (2001), and “pseudo-sluicing” to be a base-generated structure [pro (+be) + wh] (going by Wei 2004; Adams 2004), this paper reviews arguments for and against the presence of a sluicing construction in Mandarin Chinese. We show that all the tests available in the literature do not argue against the presence of such a sluicing construction, except the test building on the distribution of the copula shi. Unfortunately, the shi test is demonstrated to be uncertain and it cannot be used to argue conclusively that only a base-generation pseudo-sluicing analysis should be adopted. We show that a much clear evidence for an exclusive pseudo-sluicing analysis comes from the behavior of the sprouting construction. Investigation of sprouting also sheds light on the properties of null arguments, topic-variable relation, locality, and subcategorization of verbs in the language.
The surveys of terrestrial gamma dose rate, radon concentration indoor and in water and specific activity of radionuclides of soil were carried out in 14 villages and a town in Xiangshan uranium deposit and surrounding area, Jiangxi province, Eastern China, in 2017-2018, using a scintillator dosemeter, an ionization chamber and a high-purity germanium gamma spectrometer to study radiation status in these places after remediation. A radioactive hot spot was discovered in a village near the mining office, where specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs of soil was as high as 1433 ± 76 Bq/kg, 1210 ± 62 Bq/kg, 236 ± 13 Bq/kg and 17 ± 1.1 Bq/kg, respectively. The dose rate on a waste rock heap was about 2423 nGy/h. Approximately 50% of the houses in a village near the uranium mining site had radon concentrations that exceeded 160 Bq/m3. There was a significant positive correlation between indoor radon concentration and outdoor gamma dose rate (R2 = 0.7876). The abnormal radon concentration was observed in a rising spring sample providing residents with tap water up to 127.1 Bq/l. Four tap water samples and three of five well water samples exceeded the limit of radon concentration of drinking water in China (11.1 Bq/l). The mean annual effective doses from gamma dose rate data were 0.86 mSv/y and 1.13 mSv/y for indoor radon. The study shows that there are some radioactively contaminated places surrounding the Xiangshan uranium mine. The local outdoor dose rate averages may be used to estimate local indoor radon concentrations.
For the ultra-low frequency signals or adjacent Nyquist frequency signals, which exist in the vibration engineering domain, the traditional DTFT-based algorithm shows serious bias for phase difference measurement. It is indicated that the spectrum leakage and negative frequency contribution are the essential causes of the bias. In order to improve the phase difference measurement accuracy of the DTFT-based algorithm, two new sliding DTFT algorithms for phase difference measurement based on a new kind of windows are proposed, respectively. Firstly, the new kind of windows developed by convolving conventional rectangular windows is introduced, which obtains a stronger inhibition of spectrum leakage. Then, with negative frequency contribution considered, two new formulas for phase difference calculation under the new kind of windows are derived in detail. Finally, the idea of sliding recursive is proposed to decrease the computational load. The proposed algorithms are easy to be realized and have a higher accuracy than the traditional DTFT-based algorithm. Simulations and engineering applications verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
The purposes of this study were to analyze the influencing factors of self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) of nursing undergraduates and explore the impacts of learning attitude and self-efficacy on nursing undergraduates.
A total of 500 nursing undergraduates were investigated in Tianjin, with the Chinese version of SDLR scale, learning attitude questionnaire of nursing college students, academic self-efficacy scale, and the general information questionnaire.
The score of SDLR was 149.99±15.73. Multiple stepwise regressions indicated that academic self-efficacy, learning attitude, attitudes to major of nursing, and level of learning difficulties were major influential factors and explained 48.1% of the variance in SDLR of nursing interns.
The score of SDLR of nursing undergraduates is not promising. It is imperative to correct students’ learning attitude, improve self-efficacy, and adopt appropriate teaching model to improve SDLR.
To examine the best practice evidence of the effectiveness of the flipped classroom (FC) as a burgeoning teaching model on the development of self-directed learning in nursing education.
The relevant randomized controlled trial (RCT) and non-RCT comparative studies were searched from multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP) from inception to June 2017.
The data were independently assessed and extracted for eligibility by two reviewers. The quality of included studies was assessed by another two reviewers using a standardized form and evaluated by using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool. The self-directed learning scores (continuous outcomes) were analyzed by using the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the standard deviation average (SMD) or weighted mean difference (WMD). The heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran’s I2 statistic.
A total of 12 studies, which encompassed 1440 nursing students (intervention group = 685, control group = 755), were eligible for inclusion in this review. Of 12 included studies, the quality level of one included study was A and of the others was B. The pooled effect size showed that compared with traditional teaching models, the FC could improve nursing students’ self-directed learning skill, as measured by the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS), Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Nursing Education (SDLRSNE), Self-Regulated Learning Scale (SRL), Autonomous Learning Competencies scale (ALC), and Competencies of Autonomous Learning of Nursing Students (CALNS). Overall scores and subgroup analyses with the SRL were all in favor of the FC.
The result of this meta-analysis indicated that FCs could improve the effect of self-directed learning in nursing education. Future studies with more RCTs using the same measurement tools are needed to draw more authoritative conclusions.
A novel data knowledge representation with the combination of structure learning ability of preprocessed collaborative fuzzy clustering and fuzzy expert knowledge of Takagi- Sugeno-Kang type model is presented in this paper. The proposed method divides a huge dataset into two or more subsets of dataset. The subsets of dataset interact with each other through a collaborative mechanism in order to find some similar properties within each-other. The proposed method is useful in dealing with big data issues since it divides a huge dataset into subsets of dataset and finds common features among the subsets. The salient feature of the proposed method is that it uses a small subset of dataset and some common features instead of using the entire dataset and all the features. Before interactions among subsets of the dataset, the proposed method applies a mapping technique for granules of data and centroid of clusters. The proposed method uses information of only half or less/more than the half of the data patterns for the training process, and it provides an accurate and robust model, whereas the other existing methods use the entire information of the data patterns. Simulation results show the proposed method performs better than existing methods on some benchmark problems.