In this paper we first present some developed theories of financing that firms might accord with in their development stages. The framework, assumptions and predictions of the capital structure of firms in each theory is shown. Afterwards, crowdfunding, as a fairly new source of financing that is increasing significance, is described and is differentiated on the basis of the type of return on investment for the outside investors. In recent literature there have been models that introduce crowdfunding in the framework of financing firms through their life cycle stages. We point the difficulty of encompassing crowdfunding in the mentioned models because of characteristics that are unique to it from the perspective of the investor and the firm. While it is not surprising that crowdfunding is used in development stages, these characteristics make it difficult to construct a model of financing firms that has traditional means of financing and crowdfunding.
There are two competing hypothesizes on whether firms that are part of a business group should pay higher or lower dividends. Under one hypothesis, that can have different theoretical assumptions, firms that are a part of a business group should pay higher dividends. In contrast, if the pecking order hypothesis holds, firms that operate within a business group should pay lower dividends. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of group affiliation of Croatian firms, which are listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange, on their propensity to pay dividends. Two panel data models were used in line with recent literature and the results of the study show some evidence that the pecking order theory was followed by Croatian firms. From this result the conclusion is that Croatian firms are more likely to pay dividends if they are not part of a business group.