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Thu Tran, Masahiro Moritaka, Ran Liu and Susumu Fukuda

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of information on consumer adoption when introducing a new beef brand to the Vietnamese markets. Three variables proxy the impacts of information are prior knowledge, usage experience, and price. This study developed three pieces of advertised information and combined them with three levels of price to indicate the relevant information to diffuse at the introduction of a new brand. Three kinds of information include: (1) distinction information, which defines a new brand to be distinct from existing competitive brands; (2) differentiation information, which identifies a new brand to be different from one existing brand; (3) similarity information, which defines a new brand to be similar to one existing brand. The survey was conducted via direct interviews with 480 customers at the food outlets in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The ordered logit model was applied to examine the influence of each kind of information on consumer preferences for a new beef brand. The results indicated that (1) the effect of information on consumer adoption for a new brand at early stage depends on how that information defines the new brand in consumers’ perception; (2) the distinction information generates the highest economic added value; (3) the similarity information creates the information bias at introduction; (4) the usage experience can be diagnostic for the information bias.

Open access

Tran Quang Binh, Vu Thi Thu Hien, Nguyen Cong Khan, Nguyen Thi Lam, Le Bach Mai, Masayo Nakamori and Shigeru Yamamoto

Abstract

Background: Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is involved in hematopoiesis. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been suggested as one of the candidate genes for anemia. Objective: Investigate relationship between anemia and the commonly studied polymorphisms of VDR gene (FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI) in terms of genotype and haplotype in Vietnamese. Methods: A case-control study including 132 postmenopausal women without chronic kidney diseases was designed to investigate the relationship between VDR polymorphism and anemia. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) FokI (rs2228570), BsmI (rs1544410), ApaI (rs7975232), and TaqI (rs731236) were typed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: Genotype distributions of four SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both anemia and control groups. The SNPs at the 3’end of the VDR gene (BsmI, ApaI and TaqI) exhibited a strong linkage disequilibrium. There was no significant association between anemia and VDR polymorphism in terms of allele, genotype, and haplotype in the analyses unadjusted or adjusted for the covariates (age, body mass index, educational level, serum ferritin, iron and albumin). Conclusion: VDR gene did not influence anemia in postmenopausal women without chronic kidney disease. For further study on the association between VDR gene and anemia, the use of larger sample size, a prospective study design, and additional markers would enhance the reliability and validity of findings.