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Open access

Iván Prieto-Lage, M.A. Prieto, Thomas P. Curran and Alfonso Gutiérrez-Santiago

Abstract

The goal of this study was to present an accurate and rapid detection system to identify patterns in tennis, based on t-pattern analysis. As a case study, the break point situations in the final matches of the clay court tournaments played during the seasons 2011 and 2012 between the tennis players Novak Djokovic and Rafael Nadal were chosen. The results show that Nadal achieves a higher conversion rate with respect to Djokovic in the break point situations, independent of the outcome of the match. Some repetitive patterns of both players were revealed in break point circumstances. In long rally sequences (higher than seven hits), the Spanish player won more break points, both serving and receiving, as a result of unforced errors of his opponent’s backhand. In medium rally sequences (between four and seven hits), other factors such as the type, direction or serve location have shown to play an important role in the outcome of the point. The study also reveals that Djokovic frequently commits double faults in these critical situations of the match. This is the first time that t-patterns have been used to analyze the sport of tennis. The technique is based on computer vision algorithms and video recording material to detect particular relationships between events and helps to discover the hidden mechanistic sequences of tennis players.

Open access

Irene Villafañe, Colin Keogh, Thomas P. Curran and Emmanuel G. Reynaud

Abstract

As the production of single use plastic packaging materials is increasing rapidly, the resultant generation of waste material is quickly becoming one of the world’s major environmental issues. These plastic materials are highly stable, with excellent material properties which can allow them to be used beyond their intended single use. To effectively utilize these recovered plastic materials, an understanding of their mechanical properties is required. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recovered plastic bottles to prove the feasibility of utilisation for additional uses in non-shredding based recycling systems with lower energy requirements. This system would conserve the physical integrity of the bottles, using them as a raw material for new direct reuse and repurposing applications. Tensile tests were conducted on samples cut from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles considering different sets of variables: cutting method, orientation of the samples and degradation method. The results clearly demonstrate the superior strength characteristics, and minimal effect of degradation, showing the potential for a whole new field of applications where these recovered materials could be used. However, successful adoption of this new concept relies on structural changes to the operations of recycling and manufacturing companies as well as legislators, regulators and the general public.