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Open access

Theodora Benedek

Open access

Theodora Benedek

Open access

Theodora Benedek

Abstract

Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that results from the activity of altered oral microbiome, leading to altered immune reaction, destruction of tissues supporting the teeth, and oral bone loss. This disease is particularly associated with an expressed systemic inflammation, being considered nowadays an inflammatory disorder. At the same time, inflammation has been recognized to play a major role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Atheromatous plaque formation is triggered by alterations in the structure of the endothelium, which lead to the expression of adhesion molecules and recruitment of immune cells such as macrophages, in the arterial wall. While the association between periodontal disease, inflammation and cardiovascular diseases has been well established, the causality relation between these three entities has not been demonstrated so far. This review presents the most common advances in understanding the complex link between periodontal disease, inflammation and atherosclerosis, as a common pathway leading to increased cardiovascular risk.

Open access

Theodora Benedek and Dan Dobreanu

Abstract

Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a critical condition which often complicates the evolution of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). At the same time, co-existence of chronic multi-vessel disease can lead to the development of cardiogenic shock in cases with pronounced haemodynamic instability. Different clinical studies have tried to identify the most appropriate treatment for critical cases of CS complicating AMI. This review aims to present the current status of recommended therapeutic strategies for severe cases of CS presenting as a complication of AMI, and try to shed light on the most appropriate therapeutic strategy as outlined in the current literature. The paper will discuss the different current strategies available for use in the treatment of this condition, includig interventional revascularisation, (complete or culprit), the role of new devices for providing mechanical circulatory support, and the potential role of new drug therapies and of hypothermia.