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  • Author: Thanyarat Wongwananuruk x
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Suchada Indhavivadhana, Manee Rattanachaiyanont, Thanyarat Wongwananuruk, Kitirat Techatraisak, Prasong Tanmahasamut and Chongdee Dangrat


Background: Pelvic ultrasonography is necessary for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Compared with transabdominal ultrasonography, a transvaginal approach provides better endometrial imaging, but is more invasive. A thick endometrium is associated with endometrial abnormalities indicating further surveillance.

Objectives: We determined factors associating with endometrial thickness in PCOS Thai women. The information is useful to identify patients who need endometrial surveillance.

Methods: One hundred sixty-nine Thai women with PCOS diagnosed using revised Rotterdam 2003 criteria were examined for weight, height, waist circumference, and signs of hyperandrogenism. Endometrial thickness was determined by ultrasonography. Venous blood samples were collected after 12-hour fasting period and at 2 hours after 75-gram oral glucose loading.

Results: Endometrial thickness had moderate correlation with BMI (r = 0.207, p = 0.007), 2-hour glucose (r = 0.227, p = 0.003), and serum total testosterone (r = -0.278, p < 0.001); it had weak to null correlation (r < 0.2) with age, duration of amenorrhea, waist circumference, Ferriman-Gallwey score, and other parameters of insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that important factors associating with endometrial thickness ≥7 mm were total testosterone >0.8 ng/mL (OR = 0.241, 95%CI 0.118-0.493, p < 0.001) and BMI >23.5 kg/m2 (OR = 2.431, 95%CI.1.196-4.939, p = 0.014).

Conclusions: Endometrial thickness in PCOS Thai women has significantly inverse correlation with serum total testosterone and positive correlation with BMI. Endometrial thickness measurement using transvaginal ultrasonography may be unnecessary for PCOS Thai women with hyperandrogenism.

Open access

Suthee Panichkul, Thanyarat Wongwananuruk, Pongrak Boonyanurak, Budsaba Wiriyasirivaj, Preecha Wanichsetakul, Saipin Pongsatha, Krantarat Peeyananjarassri, Patcharada Amatyakul, Verawat Wipatavit, Srinaree Kaewrudee, Chulaporn Limwattananon, Areewan Cheawchanwattana, Sugree Soontarapa, Kittisak Wilawana and Manee Rattanachaiyanont



Menopausal symptoms can affect the quality of life (QoL) of women.


To determine menopause-related symptoms and QoL in peri- and postmenopausal women in Thailand undergoing various treatment.


A prospective cohort study was conducted at 9 menopause clinics in 4 regions of Thailand. Peri- and postmenopausal women newly registered at the clinics were recruited and followed up for 12 months. A standardized medical record form was used to collect data regarding demographic characteristics, menopause-related symptoms, and treatment. QoL was evaluated using a specific questionnaire.


We included 870 women who were 51.8 ± 5.6 years old. We compared demographic characteristics and baseline health profiles of women with normal QoL and impaired QoL. Women with impaired QoL were significantly younger (51.2 ± 4.4 vs. 52.0 ± 6.0 y, P = 0.035) and included more from northeast Thailand (11.4% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.022). The 3 most common menopause-related symptoms were psychoemotional distress, musculoskeletal pain, and hot flushes. All QoL scores improved with time in both users and nonusers of postmenopausal hormone therapy (pHT), and the scores of both groups converged during months 3 to 12 of the follow-up period.


The most common menopause-related symptom in peri- and postmenopausal women in Thailand is psychoemotional distress. QoL scores of women with moderate-to-severe menopause-related symptoms at baseline improve over time, whether or not they use of pHT. The pHT users had poorer QoL at baseline than nonusers, but their QoL improves and matches that of their peers after 3 months.