Teresa Marques and Célia Teixeira
Teresa Marques and Desidério Murcho
The articles collected in this symposium are result of the workshop Doing Justice to the Social, which was dedicated to the work of Sally Haslanger. The workshop took place at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona between the 6 and 8 June 2016. The workshop was also the 10th Meeting of the NOMOS Network for Practical Philosophy. The network meetings focus on philosophical issues connected with practical concerns, examined in an open-minded manner. This sympo- sium collects articles by Rachel Sterken, Esa Díaz-León, and Jennifer Saul, and also Sally Haslanger’s reply to authors.
This paper discusses and criticizes Segal’s 1989 argument against singular object-dependent thoughts. His argument aims at showing that object-dependent thoughts are explanatorily redundant. My criticism of Segal’s argument has two parts. First, I appeal to common anti-individualist arguments to the effect that Segal’s type of argument only succeeds in establishing that object-dependent thoughts are explanatorily redundant for those aspects of subjects’ behaviour that do not require reference to external objects. Secondly, Segal’s view on singular thoughts is at odds with his view on the semantics of proper names, which favours the singularity and object-dependency of the truth-conditions of sentences in which they occur. In particular, his views are at odds with a position he holds, that truth-conditional semantics can adequately account for all aspects of speakers’ linguistic competence in the use of proper names.
Carlos Marta, Daniel Marinho, Natalina Casanova, Teresa Fonseca, Carolina Vila-Chã, Bernardete Jorge, Mikel Izquierdo, Dulce Esteves and Mário Marques
Children aged 10-11 years pass through a dynamic developmental period marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, all of which are sexually dimorphic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of gender on a school-based intervention in the prepubertal growth spurt. One hundred twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls), fifth and sixth grade students from an urban public elementary school in Portugal (10.8 ± 0.4 years), were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: a strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls), and an endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls); and a control group (18 boys, 21 girls; no training program). Training program for the two experimental groups was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. Compared with the values at the beginning of the protocol, both strength and endurance training programs produced significant improvements (p< 0.05) in vertical and horizontal jumps, a 1 kg and 3 kg medicine ball throw, a 20 m sprint and VO2max, for both boys and girls. No significant changes were observed related to gender in training-induced strength (p> 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.16, Power= 0.29) and aerobic (p> 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.05, Power= 0.28) capacity. The results of the present study should be taken into consideration in order to optimize strength training school-based programs.
Maria Teresa da Silva Pinto Marques-Dahi, Flavio Henrique Bastos, Ulysses Okada de Araujo, Cinthya Walter and Andrea Michele Freudenheim
Purpose. In Front-Crawl swimming stroke, the interaction between two of its components, i.e. arm stroke and breathing, affects the performance of the motor skill as a whole and therefore can be considered a critical aspect of the skill. The purpose of our study was to investigate if a verbal instruction emphasizing this interaction could lead to learning gains when provided along with video demonstrations.
Methods. Participants (children) were randomly assigned to three experimental groups according to the type of verbal instruction provided. Component and Interaction groups received their specific instructions along with video demonstrations of a model execution of the Front-Crawl. The Control group watched the same video, but received no further instruction concerning the movement pattern. In the Acquisition phase (AQ) all groups performed 160 trials (organized in 4 sessions) of the task that consisted in swimming 8 meters the Front-Crawl at a comfortable velocity. To assess learning gains, a retention test (RT) and a transfer test (TR) were carried out one week after the end of the AQ.
Results. Regarding RT and TR, the one-way ANOVA on the movement pattern score showed a significant difference between groups, with post-hoc tests revealing that the Interaction group achieved higher score than the Control group.
Conclusions. The results reveal that enhancing aspects of a video demonstration with verbal instruction improves learning gains of the Front-Crawl in children. Additionally, the results suggest that providing verbal instructions about the interaction between stroke and breathing might promote learning gains, compared to providing instructions about the stroke component individually.