Mucous membrane defense mechanisms are impaired with age, both immunologically and physically. This decreases oral mucosa regenerative capability and results in greater susceptibility to injuries and microbial and fungal colonization. Pathological changes of the mucous membrane should be diagnosed and treated early, as some may develop into cancerous changes. Therefore, regular dental check-ups are essential, especially in old age. The aim of the study was to assess the condition of the oral mucosa in seniors residing in either Lublin Nursing Homes (LNH) or in home care. The study was conducted among 240 people over the age of 65: 117 LNH residents and 123 seniors living independently. The assessment of oral mucosa was conducted via clinical examination so as to see evidence of pathological change. On the base of the performed examination, pathological changes of the oral mucosa were observed in 43.59% of all LNH residents and in 34.96% of all seniors living in home care (independently). In both groups, atrophic glossitis, candidiasis (in susp.) and stomatitis prothetica were most frequently noted. Hence, it can be said that the condition of the oral mucosa of the examined seniors from Lublin is unsatisfactory.