Festuca L. is one of the most complicated genera in Poaceae. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to study the isoenzyme variation of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in natural populations of F. valesiaca Schleich. ex Gaud., F. rupicola Heuff., F. dalmatica (Hack.) K. Richt. and F. stojanovii (Acht.) Kozuharov ex Foggi & Petrova. The aim of the present study was to assess isoenzyme variation and genetic affinities among the four species of the genus Festuca. Genetic identities (I) and distances (D) were calculated to evaluate qualitative genetic affinities and systematic relationships among the species. Considering the patterns of isoenzyme variation in the studied group, it is evident that F. dalmatica and F. stojanovii are closely related species. The species F. valesiaca and F. rupicola are isoenzymatically well characterized as distinct genetic entities. The obtained results generally support recent narrow species concept in the genus Festuca.
This paper presents an outbreak provoked by methicillin-resistant strains of coagulase-positive S. aureus (CPS), produced staphylococcal enterotoxins (se) in pig meatballs and potato salad consumed from 70 people in the village Mamarchevo, Bulgaria. Eighteen women aged 50 to 70 years, and two children aged 4 and 5 years have demonstrated a severe malaise with vomiting and indigestion. Two food samples and isolates of CPS were received in the laboratory of Bulgarian Food Safety Agency. Both samples were found to have a high level of CPS. The level of S. aureus contamination in the potato salad was 8.3 logs CFU/g and 7.7 logs CFU/g in roasted meatballs, which was a significant reason to doubt the production of the toxin. The samples were analyzed according to the European Screening Method v5 using mini VIDAS SET2. The results showed a presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin (TV 2.67 for meatballs and TV 3.27 for potato salad), which was the reason for the ensuing food intoxication. EURL CPS applying quantitative indirect sandwich-type ELISA confirmed the presence of sea, sec and sed in the potato salad and sea and sed in the roasted meatballs. Two CPS isolates were confirmed as S. aureus by a species-specific 23S rRNA targeted PCR test. Real-time PCR method detected sea, sed, seg, sei, sej, and ser genes in S. aureus strains, found in both matrixes. Multiplex PCR method proved the existence of the mecA gene in both S. aureus strains. Resistance to cefoxitin (>16 mg/L), penicillin (>2 mg/L), kanamycin (64 mg/L) and sulfamethoxazole (>512 mg/L) was found.
The addition of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) to boar semen prior to insemination improves the conception and farrowing rates in sows. It is accepted that this is due to increased myometrial contractility, which improves the spermatozoa movement. However, there are limited data about the effect of the exogenous PGF2α analogs on sperm motility parameters and morphology. The aim of the current study was to define if there are changes in motility, morphology and kinematic parameters of spermatozoa on 1st and 24th hour after addition of PGF2α analogue to extended boar semen. A total of 18 ejaculates, obtained from clinically healthy boars were diluted 1:3 in semen extender, and each of them was separate into four aliquots, 50 ml each. PGF2α was added to 3 of them in concentrations of 6, 12 and 25 μg/ml, and the fourth served as untreated control. The motility, kinematic parameters and morphology of spermatozoa were evaluated on 1st and 24th hours after addition of PGF2α. There was no significant difference in sperm morphology, total and progressive motility between the untreated and treated groups. There was however a significant decrease in the rapid velocity and some of the kinematic parameters (VCL, VSL and VAP) in the group treated with 25 μg/ml compared to the control at the 1st hour after PGF2α treatment, which (except for the rapid velocity) persisted to the 24th hour. The results indicate that addition of Oestrophan (Bioveta, CZ) to the extended boar semen did not improve the sperm motility, morphology and kinematic parameters of the spermatozoa.