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Open access

Nichakorn Sukasame, Narumon Nimnoo, Tan Suwandecha and Teerapol Srichana


Background: Salbutamol is a β2-selective adrenoceptor agonist used as a bronchodilator. Delivery by inhalation has many advantages over oral dosage for the treatment of asthma. It offers rapid onset of action with low systemic side effects.

Objective: Evaluate the relationship of in vitro particle size characteristics and pharmacodynamics of formulations of inhaled salbutamol dry powder.

Methods: Three formulations contained micronized salbutamol and a lactose carrier with different size ranges (40- 80, 20-40, and 10-20 μm for formulations 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Following formulation of the drug, resultant powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and the aerosolization performance determined using an Andersen Cascade Impactor analysis. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was used for measuring the salbutamol drug content. The in vivo pharmacodynamics of the formulations was monitored in 12 healthy and 12 asthmatic volunteers.

Results: The percentage of the fine particle fractions (FPF) for formulations 1, 2, and 3 were 24.87±0.52%, 33.82±3.80%, and 41.50±2.86%, respectively. The mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) were around 3 μm for all formulations. The pharmacodynamic parameters, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and mid expiratory flow (FEF25-75), were indices for evaluation of the bioavailability of the bronchodilatory drug. All formulations improved the FEF25-75 value in asthmatics, while FVC and FEV1 were not altered.

Conclusion: The formulations of salbutamol dry powder aerosols with a fine lactose carrier produced a high deposition in the lower regions of the respiratory tract. Although the FEF25-75 value in asthmatics was improved, the value did not correlate well with the FPF of the salbutamol dry powder.

Open access

Titpawan Nakpheng, Somchai Sawatdee, Khemmarat Buaking and Teerapol Srichana


Background: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a naturally occurring hormone that controls sex hormones in both men and women. In general, LHRH is poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract due to its large molecular size, high polarity, and loss from enzymatic degradation.

Objective: Prepare and develop LHRH in a dry power formulation with stability and biological activity.

Methods: Mannitol (M) and glycine (G) were chosen as ingredients to stabilize and protect LHRH during the freeze drying processes and during storage. The physicochemical properties of LHRH dry powders were examined by capillary electrophoresis, fluorescence spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, and photon correlation spectroscopy. The release of LHRH from the dry powder was carried out in dissolution apparatus. In addition, a rat model was employed to study the bioactivity of LHRH in the dry powder form.

Results: The LHRH dry powder formulations using M and G in the ratios of 6:4 and 7:3 were more stable than other formulations. LHRH colloids containing M:G showed no aggregation after storage at 4°C for one month. The concentration of LHRH in the dry powder form was more stable than that of LHRH in solution form. All the LHRH dry powder formulations were instantly dissolved within 10 seconds in an aqueous medium. After the LHRH dry powder (13 mg) was reconstituted and administered intraperitoneally to male rats during a one-month period, the testosterone level in the plasma was significantly decreased compared with an untreated group (15.0±1.0 ng/mL, 15.0±1.0 ng/mL and 20.0±2.0 ng/mL for LHRH containing M:G; 6:4, 7:3, and 8:2, respectively, compared to the control of 35±2 ng/mL, p<0.05).

Conclusion: The LHRH dry powder formulations had good physicochemical properties and bioactivity.

Open access

Somchai Sawatdee, Kanuengnit Choochuay, Wirot Chanthorn and Teerapol Srichana


Centella asiatica was extracted by methanol. The assay content of triterpenes in the extract was 0.12 % asiatic acid, 0.54 % madecassic acid, 0.25 % asiaticoside and 1.02 % madecassoside. The extract was complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and formulated with Eudragit E100, glycerol, PEG 400, copovidone, ethanol and purified water. A clear yellowish solution (F1-F8) was obtained. The formulations had a pH of 5.5–6.0 with viscosity in the range of 20–60 mPa s, surface tension 20.3–24.6 mN m–1 and contact angle less than 20°. The amount of PEG 400 and copovidone affected the film and spreadability. The content of triterpenes in the spray formulation was close to 100 % compared to triterpenes in the extract. The skin irritation study indicated that the formulation was non-irritating in a rat model. An in vivo excision wound healing model showed that wound excision was completely healed after 14 days.

Open access

Anongtip Sa, Somchai Sawatdee, Narubodee Phadoongsombut, Wilaiporn Buatong, Titpawan Nakpeng, Rutthapol Sritharadol and Teerapol Srichana


In this study, povidone-iodine (PVP-I) has been formulated as a topical spray to produce a thin film for the controlled release of I2. By means of experimental design, 27 formulations containing glycerol, ethanol, PEG 400, copovidone and HFA 134a as a propellant were prepared. The pH values of all formulations were in the range of 6-7. The viscosity was within the range of 11.9-85.9 mPa s. The surface tensions were 20.3 to 24.6 mN m-1 and the contact angles were between 19.3 and 38.7°. The assays for the iodine contents were within acceptable range (80-120 %). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed the ionized form of iodine was much higher than the unionized form. The MIC and MBC values of the PVP-I sprays against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were higher than that of commercial PVP-I solution. The cytotoxicity study confirmed that the PVP-I spray had lower toxic effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts compared to the commercial PVP-I solution. The formulation containing 59 % ethanol, 18 % copovidone and 12 % PEG 400 showed good antibacterial activity.