Fabric quality and performance is assessed subjectively by the customer using an important and complex phenomenon of fabric hand. Objectively, it is evaluated with complicated and expensive instruments, such as Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics (KES-F) and Fabric Assurance with Simple Testing (FAST). The present research explores a non-touch objective approach, i.e., three-dimensional (3D) drape model to estimate fabric hand. Fabric hand prediction was testified on different commercial fabrics spanning a wide range of areal weight, thickness, yarn count, and fabric density. Fabric objective ranks based on drape indicators using principal component analysis (PCA) were compared with subjective ranks of fabric hand. Additionally, fabric drape is evaluated three dimensionally and a new drape indicator drape height (DH) is proposed. The cosine similarity results have proved fabric drape as an objective alternate to fabric hand.
The application of natural dyes is increasing each year due to their environmental friendliness and easy application on cellulose fibers. In this study, the natural dye from the Mexican marigold flower was extracted using a Soxhlet extraction apparatus. The extracted natural dye was applied on lyocell fabric with five different metallic salts using pre-mordanting and post-mordanting methods. It was observed that different color shade depth was achieved with different fixing agents. The color shade depth (K/S) washing fastness, light fastness, rubbing fastness, perspiration, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) test results of all dyed samples were excellent in both pre- and post-mordanting methods. There was no significant difference in the results between post- and pre-mordanting fixation methods. However, the results showed that mordant ferrous sulfate had higher K/S value as compared to all other mordants. The dye extracted from marigold flower showed good dyeing efficiency with mordant to excellent colorfastness tests. FTIR results showed that there was no structural change in lyocell fabrics, before and after dyeing processes. Thus, a natural dye extracted from marigold flower has shown good colorfastness properties without damaging its fiber structure.
In the apparel manufacturing, the fabric is the single largest element in the cost of the garment. Therefore, effectual fabric consumption causes a reduction in cost and exertions. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of fabric width on the efficiency of marker (cutting) plans. Fabric consumption is in four types for human body shapes, that is, triangle, oval, square, and circle, in both genders to control the fabric utilization. Two clothing styles, fitted trousers and fitted shirts, are manufactured in an apparel manufacturing industry. The marker plans produced through Garment Gerber Technology software are accomplished in 36 different fabric widths (independent variables). The evaluation of dependent variables, that is, marker efficiency, marker loss, and fabric consumption efficiency relevant to four body shapes in variable fabric widths is analyzed for both women and men. The statistical analysis indicates that there is a linear relationship between marker efficiency and fabric width (sig <0.05). The regression analysis (p-value) between dependent variables and predictor variables (body types and fabric width) is also statistically significant. Also, the result implies that markers are more productive with larger fabric widths in all styles in both genders.
In the apparel manufacturing, fabric utilization always remains the significant apprehensions in controlling the production expenditure. Alteration in pattern shapes and marker preparation leads to the enormous utilization of fabric. The purpose of this research is to study fabric efficiency in correspondence with four different human body shapes in both genders. Two clothing styles, fitted trousers and fitted shirts, were processed conventionally in the garment manufacturing company. The comparative study of auto-marker and manual-marker making through Garment Gerber Technology (GGT) software were also accomplished. The evaluation of fabric consumptions, marker efficiency, marker loss, fabric loss, and fabric cost relevant to four different body shapes was analyzed for both women and men. The investigation carried out in this article concludes that there are differences in fabric consumptions, efficiencies, and cost-effectiveness relative to body shapes. The result revealed that the manualmarker of trousers for triangular body shape in women’s wears has the least fabric consumption (most cost-effective), whereas the shirt’s auto-marker for an oval body shape in men’s wears has the most fabric utilization (least costeffective). The manual-virtual-marker making is efficient (significant p-value) than auto-generated-markers. Also, fabric utilization for women’s garments is cost-effective than that for men. Trousers are cost-effective compared to the shirts.