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  • Author: Tawab E. Aly x
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An Investigation Concerning the Impact of Climate Changes on the Water Equilibrium in the Egyptian Nile Delta

Abstract

In such problematic water situation in Egypt, control and saving of the available limited quantity takes great importance from both technical and national points of view. In addition to all the well-known traditional reasons of the problem such as pollution, over usage, and bad traditions of dealing with water, a new very important reason is added nowadays, called “Climate Changes” which has a direct impact on sea water rising, that causes a serious attack of the salt water to the fresh water especially in River Deltas., Not only the surface water, but also the ground water. Since that process proved some acceleration, several investigations have recently considered the worst impacts of climate change and sea water level rise on sea water intrusion. Most of them have revealed the severity of such problem, and the significance of the land movement of the dispersion zone under the sea water level rise situation. In this paper, we try to introduce a technical review and study for the most popular studies concerning our topic, and its most important conclusions, as an approach for preparing the Ph.D. thesis about the Nile Delta water equilibrium in the light of the expected Mediterranean Sea water level rise. Nile Delta, which located between Damietta Branch on the East, and Rosetta Branch on the west, occupies about 20000 square kilometers of the most rich, productive land in Egypt. About 50% of Egyptian population live in that area, agriculture is the main human activities on them, so water is the prime factor in their life, and their agriculture investments. The great amount of this investment depends on the ground water, which faces a serious challenge due to, two reasons, first, is the overuse, and over pumping, while the second is the attack of the salt water due to the Mediterranean Seawater level rise, because of the climate changes. These two reasons must be overcome, if the first reason can be controlled by law, and technical roles, the second reason needs intensive studies and investigations concerning the interaction between seawater and fresh ground water.

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An Investigation Concerning the Effect of Canal width Contraction that May be Needed in the Location of Constructing Some Irrigation Works

Abstract

The compatibility between the needed structural designed dimensions of the irrigation works and the dimensions of the water stream or the canal in which the irrigation work will be located has a great importance from more than one point of view. As it is well known, the main aim of the designer of such works is to reach the optimum design for maximum performance efficiency with economical cost, and minimize negative technical impacts that may be harmful to the safety of the whole work. Since the complete suitability between the obtained designed dimensions of the different construction elements of the work, and the original properties and dimensions of the canal in which the work will be constructed, is rarely occurring. The designer always has to make some changes in the original engineering properties and dimensions of canals, such as bed width, bed level, and/or inside side slope, to reach the needed suitable compatibility between the structural design and the natural original canal cross section. For the economical purposes, the design always needs less width of the work, than the width of the bed of the original stream cross section, so a contraction may be needed where the work will be constructed; the literature indicated that, such a contraction must not be less than 0.6 of the original bed width. That contraction, of course, has a direct impact on the different hydraulic parameters, such as water depth, velocity, and flow regime in the location of the work. Changes of such hydraulic parameters may exceed their safe permissible values, and so the whole structure may face some dangerous situations, which must be overcome. In this paper, we present a technical survey of the previous research concerning canal width contraction, with the needed technical comments, and comparisons as a logical approach for a master-thesis under the same title.

Open access
Effect of canal width contraction on the hydraulic parameters and scour downstream water structures

Abstract

The dimensions of many water streams, which satisfy proper hydraulic conditions, may not be compatible with the designed dimensions of an irrigation work that needs to be constructed in some locations. The design requirements of such irrigation works may involve a contraction in the channel width in the required location. This contraction, of course, affects different flow properties and the scour hole formed downstream of these structures. Therefore, the present experimental study aims to investigate the effect of the transition angle and the contraction on the flow properties and on the scour phenomenon downstream water structures. Through 460 experimental runs, carried out on 20 experimental models, the study proved that, for an efficient hydraulic performance and economic design, the best transition angle (θ) for the approaches of water structures is 30° with a relative contracted width ratio (r = b/B) not less than 0.6.

Open access
Transboundary water resources “A comparative study”: The lessons learnt to help solve the Nile basin water conflict

Abstract

The problematic water situation in Egypt, as one of the River Nile basin countries, has been heightened by the harmful effects of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on Egypt’s share of the Nile water. In the light of this Egyptian attention was directed towards a study of worldwide transboundary water problems, in order to find the most effective methods for dealing successfully with water shortage problems in basin countries. The present study focuses on the most successful experiences in the management and development of international river basins worldwide, as well as studying the possibility of implementing these experiences in other basins, especially the River Nile basin. The study showed that overcoming the water scarcity problems in Egypt and increasing the Nile water yield for all the basin countries can be achieved, first of all through serious cooperation among all the basin countries for minimizing the huge water losses from the river (more than 1480 Billion Cubic Metres per year which represents roughly 90% of the whole basin income), and secondly to make use of the most successful technical and political experiences that have been implemented in other international river basins mentioned in the present study.

Open access