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  • Author: Tatjana Zaķe x
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Tatjana Zaķe, Sandra Skuja, Aivars Lejnieks, Valērija Groma and Ilze Konrāde

Abstract

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) mainly include Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and Graves’ disease (GD), which are characterised by the presence of circulating antibodies against various thyroid autoantigens and infiltration of the thyroid gland by autoreactive lymphocytes. Despite the significant advancement in the knowledge of AITD pathogenesis in the last decade, the specific immunological mechanisms responsible for development of the disease are not thoroughly understood. Classically, HT has long been considered as a T helper (Th)1-mediated disease, while a Th2-driven autoimmune response is dominant for GD development. However, this classification has changed due to the description of Th17 lymphocytes, which suggested participation of these cells in AITD, particularly HT pathogenesis. Moreover, a shift in the balance between Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells has been observed in thyroid autoimmunity. We have observed overexpression of IL-17, the prominent effector cytokine of Th17, within thyroid tissues from HT and GD patients in our studies. The present review will focus on recent data regarding the role of Treg and Th17 lymphocytes in AITD pathogenesis. In addition, the impact and proposed mechanisms of the predominant environmental factors triggering the autoimmune response to the thyroid will be discussed.

Open access

Ieva Kalere, Ilze Konrāde, Anna Proskurina, Sabīne Upmale, Tatjana Zaķe, Normunds Limba, Gita Krieviņa, Aivars Lejnieks and Pēteris Tretjakovs

Abstract

There is a close relationship between melatonin as a circadian regulator and insulin, glucagon and somatostatin production. This study aimed to describe subgroups of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients that may benefit from melatonin clock-targeting properties. The study involved 38 participants: 26 T2DM patients, and 12 participants without diabetes in the control group. Subjects were asked to complete the questionnaire of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Standard biochemical venous sample testing was performed, and a sample of saliva was collected for melatonin testing. Melatonin concentration in participants without obesity (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2) was significantly higher than in obese participants: 13.2 (6.4; 23.50) pg/ml vs 5.9 (0.78; 13.1) pg/ml, p = 0.035. Subjects with BMI 30 kg/m2 had a significantly higher PSQI score than non-obese subjects: 7 (4.5; 10) vs 5.5 (3; 7), p = 0.043. T2DM patients showed significantly lower levels of melatonin than the control group: 6.1 (0.78; 12.2) pg/ml vs 17.8 (8.2; 25.5) pg/ml, p = 0.003. T2DM patients using short-acting insulin analogues showed a significantly higher PSQI score than patients not using insulin: 9 (6; 10) vs 6 (3; 8), respectively (p = 0.025). Poor sleep quality was more prevalent in patients with diabetic retinopathy than in those without this complication (p = 0.031). Lower melatonin levels were detected in T2DM and obese patients. Furthermore, poor sleep quality was observed in T2DM patients using short-acting insulin analogues and those with diabetic retinopathy, and obese individuals.