Detection of mutations in breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) gene is an effective method of early diagnosis and prevention of breast cancer (BC). The mutational spectrum of both genes in Bulgarian population has not been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of five deleterious BRCA1/2 point mutations in high-risk BC women, selected according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines including early age of onset, triple-negative BC and family history of breast or ovarian cancer. The prevalence of two BRCA1 mutations (C61G and 5382insC) and three BRCA2 mutations (6079del4, 9326insA and 9908delA) was evaluated in 80 females with BC, obtained from the Cancer Registry of University Hospital - Pleven. Genetic testing was performed by direct DNA sequencing. One deleterious mutation (5382insC in exon20 in BRCA1) was been found in two patients (2.5%). Both women were diagnosed with BC before age 45. The prevalence of BRCA mutations established in our study was lower than the one found in another preliminary study on Bulgarian population. We concluded that this discrepancy was due to the genetic heterogeneity of the population and the specific mutational spectrum of the BC patients from the Pleven region.
Colorectal cancer in pregnant women is rare and represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. We present a case of a 38-year-old pregnant woman, diagnosed with colorectal cancer and liver metastases during the 29th week of gestation. After clinical evaluation and making the diagnosis, the patient underwent an emergency cesarean section (C-section) and bypass anastomosis between the transverse colon and sigmoid colon. The babies were born healthy without any complications. After recovery, the mother started treatment with chemotherapy, but two months later she died due to the spread of the disease. Cancer during pregnancy is always a challenge for diagnosis and treatment.
In the last 15 years, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for patients with malignant melanoma (MM) has been introduced into the clinical practice. Our aim was to make a retrospective analysis of clinical results in order to assess the success ratio of SLNB and the variables affecting it in MM patients, treated in the Oncology Center at the University Hospital “Dr George Stranski” - Pleven, Bulgaria for a 4-year period. A research index card was used to process the oncologic files of 82 out of 102 patients with MM, treated and monitored at the Oncology centre between 01.01.2008 and 31.12.2011. TNM-stages, Breslow and Clark levels, location, characteristics of the skin lesion, diagnostic excision, type of lymph node dissection, number of SLN, localization of SLN, etc. were registered in the index card. SLNB staging was carried out in 28 patients. Sentinel lymph nodes were found in 22 of them. The success ratio of the method was 78.6%. Histologically, metastatic SLN were found in 4 cases. The Patent Blue Dye method was used in 22 of the cases (78%). A combined radiocolloid and dye method was used in 5 cases (18%). A radiocolloid method was used in 1 case (4%) only. Our research showed that more therapeutic lymph node dissections were performed in cases of locally advanced MM, which in turn worsened the clinical results. According to our research, the SLNB success ratio depends on the precision of diagnostic excision (p=0.019), lesion location (p=0.015), Clark level (p=0.0229), mapping method (p=0.08) and the type of melanoma (p=0.088).
Total mesorectal excision (TME) is a standard surgical procedure for rectal cancer. Robotic surgery has the potential to minimize the disadvantages of laparoscopic rectal resection. Circumferential margin and macroscopic quality assessment of the resected specimen are the major prognostic factors for local recurrence of the disease. The aim of this study was to research the macroscopic assessment of the quality of TME after robotic-assisted rectal resections for rectal cancer performed in a single center. Data was prospectively collected about macroscopic assessment of the quality of TME in thirteen patients after robotic-assisted rectal resections for rectal cancer between 09.04.2014 and 31.12.2016. After all robotic TMEs, a pathologist made macroscopic assessment of the completeness of the mesorectal excision. The quality of TME was complete in 12 cases and nearly complete in one case. The circumferential and distal resection margins were negative in all cases. The mean number of harvested lymph nodes was nine. This study indicated that using robotic surgery for rectal cancer does not lead to worsening the quality of TME. Further studies in this field are necessary.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The standard for detecting it includes clinical exam, mammography and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Our aim was to establish the role of the tru-cut biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant breast lesions. We provideatwo-year retrospective clinical study defining 98.67%sensitivity, 100%specificity, 100%positive predictive value, 80%negative predictive value and an overall diagnostic accuracy of 98.73%. In 89.1%of the malignant lesions, the sample was adequate to define the receptor status. Therefore, tru-cut biopsy is an easy, cheap, safe and accurate alternative to fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of breast lesions.