One of the most important problems Egypt is facing nowadays is saving and controlling the limited available quantity of water and its quality for irrigation and other purposes. Such goals may be achieved through different types of diversion head structures across the river and in the entrance of other carrying canals. The construction of diversion head structures, which usually causes many technical problems, should have the objective of solving and overcoming to protect the structure from failure. The main problem occurs downstream. Such structures have the harmful effect of converting the potential energy gained in the upstream side to a kinetic energy in the downstream side. This energy must be dissipated shortly and safely as near as possible to the head structure to avoid its destructive effect. The hydraulic jump is the most effective tool for the dissipation of water energy, accelerating the forming of the hydraulic jump downstream such structures became essential for achieving our main goal. Using energy dissipaters on the soled apron in the downstream side of the structures was the main technique for accelerating the hydraulic jump formation and dissipating great amount of the residual harmful kinetic energy occurring downstream head structures. So early, many researchers investigated different types, shapes, and arrangements of such dissipaters to evaluate its efficiency in dissipating the water energy and accelerating the forming of the hydraulic jump. In fact, in our present study we will try to investigate some other shapes of energy dissipaters, which have not been studied enough, by evaluating its positive technical impact on: (i) percentage value of dissipating kinetic water energy; (ii) percentage value of increasing the dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the irrigation water, and improving its quality. The study is proposed to be held in the irrigation and hydraulic laboratory of the Civil department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, using a movable bed tilting channel 20 m long, 30 cm wide, and 50 cm high, using fourteen types of curved dissipaters with different arrangements as shown in Table 2. It is worth mentioning that, in this first part of our paper, we will introduce a comparative analysis for the efficiency of different types of energy dissipaters available in the literature review. The most effective types of the previously studied dissipaters will be put in a comparison with our new dissipaters from the two above mentioned points of view, and the results will be presented in the second part of this paper later.
Using energy dissipaters on the soled aprons downstream of head structures is the main technique for accelerating hydraulic jump formation and dissipating a great amount of the residual harmful kinetic energy occurring downstream of head structures. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to investigate some untested shapes of curved dissipaters with different angles of curvature and arrangements from two points of view. The first is to examine its efficiency in dissipating the kinetic water energy. The second is to examine the most effective shape and arrangement obtained from the aforementioned step in enriching the flow with dissolved oxygen for enhancement of the irrigation water quality. The study was held in the irrigation and hydraulic laboratory of the Civil Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, using a movable bed tilting channel 20 m long, 30 cm wide, and 50 cm high, using 21 types of curved dissipaters with different arrangements. A total of 660 runs were carried out. Results were analysed, tabulated and graphically presented, and new formulas were introduced to estimate the energy dissipation ratio, as well as the DO concentrations. Results in general showed that the dissipater performance is more tangible in dissipating the residual energy when the curvature is in the opposite direction to that of the flow. Also, the energy loss ratio increases with an increase in curvature angle (θ), until it reaches (θ = 120°), then it decreases again. The study also showed that using three rows of dissipaters give nearly the same effect as using four rows, concerning both the relative energy dissipation and dissolved oxygen content. So, it is recommended to use three rows of the curved dissipater with the angle of curvature (θ = 120°) in the opposite direction to that of the flow to obtain the maximum percentage of water energy dissipation downstream of head structures, and maximum dissolved oxygen content too
El-Sayed Abdelrahman, Mohamed Gobashy, Eid Abo-Ezz and Tarek El-Araby
We have developed a simple method to determine completely the model parameters of a buried dipping fault from gravity data (depths to the centers of the upper and lower portions of the faulted thin slab, dip angle, and amplitude coefficient). The method is based on defining the anomaly values at the origin and at four symmetrical points around the origin on the gravity anomaly profile. By defining these five pieces of information, the dip angle is determined for each value of the depth of the lower portion of the faulted thin slab by solving iteratively one nonlinear equation of the form f(α)= 0. The computed dip angles are plotted against the values of the depth representing a continuous depth-dip curve. The solution for the depth to the lower portion of the faulted thin slab (down-thrown block) and the dip angle of the buried fault is read at the common intersection of the depth-dip curves. Knowing the depth to the center of the lower portion of the faulted layer and the dip angle, the problem of determining the depth to the center of the upper portion of the faulted slab (up-thrown block) is transformed into the problem of solving iteratively a nonlinear least-squares equation, f(z) = 0. Because the depths and the dip angle are known, the amplitude coefficient, which depends on the thickness and density contrast of the thin slab, is determined using a linear least-squares equation. The method is applied to theoretical data with and without random errors. The validity of the method is tested on real gravity data from Egypt. In all cases examined, the model parameters obtained are in good agreement with the actual ones and with those given in the published literature.
Khalid M. El-Say, Tarek A. Ahmed, Maged F. Abdelbary, Bahaa E. Ali, Bader M. Aljaeid and Ahmed S. Zidan
This study was aimed at developing risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets (OD-mini-tablets) as age-appropriate formulations and to assess their suitability for infants and pediatric use. An experimental Box-Behnken design was applied to assure high quality of the OD-mini-tablets and reduce product variability. The design was employed to understand the influence of the critical excipient combinations on the production of OD-mini-tablets and thus guarantee the feasibility of obtaining products with dosage form uniformity. The variables selected were mannitol percent in Avicel (X1), swelling pressure of the superdisintegrant (X2), and the surface area of Aerosil as a glidant (X3). Risperidone-excipient compatibilities were investigated using FTIR and the spectra did not display any interaction. Fifteen formulations were prepared and evaluated for preand post-compression characteristics. The prepared ODmini- tablet batches were also assessed for disintegration in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.2) and in reconstituted skimmed milk. The optimized formula fulfilled the requirements for crushing strength of 5 kN with minimal friability, disintegration times of 8.4 and 53.7 s in SSF and skimmed milk, respectively. This study therefore proposes the risperidone OD-mini-tablet formula having robust mechanical properties, uniform and precise dosing of medication with short disintegration time suitable for pediatric use.