Swap trailer transport organisation problem originates from the traditional vehicle routing problem (VRP). Most of the studies on the problems assume that the travelling times of vehicles are fixed values. In this paper, the uncertainties of driving times are considered and a chance constrained programming problem is proposed. An improved simulated annealing algorithm is used to solve the problem proposed. The model and algorithm described in this paper are studied through a case study, and the influence of uncertainty on the results is analysed. The conclusion of this study provides theoretical support for the practice of trailer pickup transport.
Background: Tissue-engineered skin can be used not only to cover and repair skin damage, but also as a model to test the efficacy of drugs and cosmetics.
Objective: To establish a 3-dimensional (3D) culture model of skin melanoma invasion using A375 melanoma cells in vitro for studying melanoma and with which to conduct preliminary evaluation of therapeutic drugs. Here we evaluated the efficacy of cinnamic aldehyde to inhibit tumor cell growth in our 3D model of malignant melanoma.
Methods: Melanoma cells A375 were inoculated onto the surface of tissue-engineered skin and cultured at the air-liquid interface. On day 5, cinnamic aldehyde (20 μ☐) was added to the culture medium. Skin samples cultured for different days were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and observed using transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining of E-cadherin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 was conducted separately.
Results: A large number of A375 cell clumps had invaded the deep dermis by day 15. The tumor cells formed clumps through the desmosomes and connected with the surrounding fibroblasts through cell junctions. While the expression of E-cadherin was lost in the tumor cells, expression of MMP-9 and PCNA increased with increasing depth of invasion. Cinnamic aldehyde inhibited the proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells in the 3D culture model. Expression of MMP-9 and PCNA significantly decreased in melanoma cells in the model treated with cinnamic aldehyde.
Conclusion: The 3D culture model successfully retains the biological proliferation and invasion characteristics of the malignant melanoma cells and can be used as a system to study further the biological characteristics of malignant melanoma and to evaluate the efficacy of drug treatment. Cinnamic aldehyde and compounds of its class may prove useful treatments for patients with advanced melanomas.
Background: Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) cover the outer layer of the skin and play a key role in wound repair. Although the methods for isolation and cultivation of primary HEKs from epidermis have been used successfully in both laboratory and clinical settings, the ability to subculture (passage) these cells has yet to be established and is the primary factor hindering their usage.
Objectives: We conducted this study to identify optimal subculture conditions for HEKs.
Methods: We first harvested the primary HEKs from prepuce tissue specimens, and then compared three different reagent compositions (0.25% trypsin, 0.25% trypsin plus 0.01% EDTA, and 0.25% dispase digestion solution) for various periods of time at 4°C with the conventional 0.25% trypsin or 0.25% trypsin plus 0.01% EDTA digestion at room temperature.
Results: Our data indicated that the cold digestion conditions yielded higher cell numbers and more viable cells than the conventional methods. Furthermore, the subcultured HEKs also adhered and grew better after four hours of a 0.25% trypsin cold digestion or after six hours of a 0.25% dispase cold digestion. These procedures produced higher numbers of HEK passages than that commonly seen experienced with conventional methods.
Conclusion: The data from the current study demonstrated that the optimal subculture condition for passaging and growing HEKs in vitro is four hours digestion with 0.25% trypsin.
First principles calculations have been performed to investigate the structure, electronic and optical properties of Y3Fe5O12. Both the cubic and trigonal phases have been considered in our calculation. The calculated structural parameters are slightly larger than the experimental values. The band structures show that Y3Fe5O12 in cubic and trigonal phases have direct band gaps of 0.65 and 0.17 eV. The calculations of dielectric function, absorption, extinction coefficient, refractive index, energy loss function and reflectivity are presented.
Optical dating of earthquake related sediments were investigated including one modern sample and three samples from a trench excavated across the 1985 Ms7.4 Wuqia Earthquake surface rupture. The results indicated that equivalent dose (De) values vary with grain size and the method used for De determination. The residual dose of the modern sample is 0.1 ka (
Gy) for the quartz single grain measurements. Only 1.5–3.6% of the grains have a detectable OSL signal. Single grain quartz ages are similar to the expected ages. Fine grain quartz results overestimate the De values and are much older than single grain quartz and coarse grain quartz small aliquot standardized growth curve (SA-SGC) ages. Single grain quartz OSL dating may be optimal for dating earthquake related deposits, but SA-SGC can save measurement time and has potential for dating some poorly bleaching samples.
Thermal performance of aerogel-embedded polyester/polyethylene nonwoven fabrics in cross airflow was experimentally studied by using a laboratory-built dynamic heat transfer measuring device in which the fabric could be applied on a heating rod. Experiments were performed with different airflow velocities and heating conditions. The temperature–time histories of different materials were collected and compared. The temperature difference and convective heat transfer coefficient under continuous heating were analyzed and discussed. Results showed that under preheated conditions, the aerogel-embedded nonwoven fabrics had very small decrease in temperature and good ability to prevent against heat loss in cross flow. As for the continuous heating conditions, the heat transfer rate of each material showed an increasing trend with increase in the Reynolds number. The aerogel-treated nonwoven fabric with the least fabric thickness and aerogel content delivered a significantly increased heat transfer rate at higher Reynolds number. Thicker fabrics with higher aerogel content could provide better insulation ability in cross flow.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.
Methods A total of 452 patients with common HFMD were randomly assigned to receive Western medicine alone (n = 220) or combined with TCM (Reduning or Xiyanping injections) (n = 232). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of rash/herpes disappearance within 5 days, while secondary outcomes included the incidence rate for fever, cough, lethargy, agitation, and vomiting clearance within 5 days.
Results The rash/herpes disappearance rate was 45.5% (100/220) in Western medicine therapy group, and 67.2% (156/232) in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group, with significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, TCM remarkably increased the incidence rate of secondary disappearance, which was 56.4% in Western medicine therapy group and 71.4% in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group (P = 0.001). No drug-related adverse events were observed.
Conclusions It’s suggested that the integrative TCM and Western medicine therapy achieved a better therapeutic efficacy. TCM may become an important complementary therapy on relieving the symptoms of HFMD.