This article studies the impact of ASEA N on the bilateral exports of its 10 member countries. It reports the results of applying the gravity model to a data set covering 50 partner countries from 1967 to 2008. The study’s empirical findings show that on average ASEA N regionalism significantly increases bilateral exports. However, the results are country-specific and indicate that ASEA N seems to benefit only large economies with a long history of membership, while smaller more recent members do not show significant expansion of exports.
The path following control problem of the underactuated unmanned surface vessel (USV) is studied in this paper. An improved line-of-sight (LOS) guidance algorithm is proposed which can adjust adaptively based on the path following error. The global asymptotically stable path following controller is designed based on the nonlinear backstepping method and the Lyapunov stability theory. Firstly, the USV path following error model is established in the Serret-Frenet (SF) coordinate frame. The path following error in the inertial coordinate frame is transformed into the SF coordinate frame, which is used to define the path following control problem. Secondly, inspired by the traditional LOS guidance algorithm, the longitudinal path following error in the SF coordinate frame is introduced into the improved LOS guidance algorithm. This allows the algorithm to adjust adaptively to the desired path. Thirdly, in order to solve the underactuated problem of the USV path following control system, the tangential velocity of the desired path is designed as a virtual input. The underactuated problem is converted to a virtual fully actuated problem by designing the virtual control law for the tangential velocity. Finally, by combining backstepping design principles and the Lyapunov stability theory, the longitudinal thrust control law and the yaw torque control law are designed for the underactuated USV. Meanwhile, the global asymptotic stability of the path following error is proved. Simulation experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the improved LOS guidance algorithm and the path following controller.
The majority of verified plant disease resistance genes (R genes) isolated to date was of the nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class. The conservation between different NBS-LRR R genes opens the avenue for the use of PCR based strategies in isolating and cloning other R gene family members or analogs (resistance gene analogue, RGA) using degenerate primers for these conserved regions. In this study, to better understand the R gene in European aspen (Populus tremula), a perennial tree, we used degenerate primers to amplify RGA sequences from European aspen. Cloning and sequence characterization identified 37 European aspen RGAs, which could be phylogenetically classified into seven subfamilies. Deduced amino acid sequences of European aspen RGAs showed strong identity, ranging from 30.41 to 46.63%, to toll interleukin receptor (TIR) R gene subfamily. BLAST searches with reference to the genomic sequence of P. trichocarpa found 209 highly homologous regions distributed in 28 genomic loci, suggesting the abundance and divergence of NBS-encoding R genes in European aspen genome. Although, numerous studies have reported that plant R genes are under diversifying selection for specificity to evolving pathogens, non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution (dN/dS) ratio were <1 for NBS domains of European aspen RGA, showing the evidence of purifying selection in this perennial tree. In further analysis, many intergenic exchanges were also detected among these RGAs, indicating a probable role in homogenising NBS domains. The present study permits insights into the origin, diversification, evolution and function of NBS-LRR R genes in perennial species like European aspen and will be useful for further R gene isolation and exploitation.