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Open access

Weiliang Tao, Yan Liu and Wenbin Hu

Abstract

Side scan sonar measurement platform, affected by underwater environment and its own motion precision, inevitably has posture and motion disturbance, which greatly affects accuracy of geomorphic image formation. It is difficult to sensitively and accurately capture these underwater disturbances by relying on auxiliary navigation devices. In this paper, we propose a method to invert motion and posture information of the measurement platform by using the matching relation between the strip images. The inversion algorithm is the key link in the image mosaic frame of side scan sonar, and the acquired motion posture information can effectively improve seabed topography and plotting accuracy and stability. In this paper, we first analyze influence of platform motion and posture on side scan sonar mapping, and establish the correlation model between motion, posture information and strip image matching information. Then, based on the model, a reverse neural network is established. Based on input, output of neural network, design of and test data set, a motion posture inversion mechanism based on strip image matching information is established. Accuracy and validity of the algorithm are verified by the experimental results.

Open access

Xiping Liu, Ya Li, Zhangqi Liu, Tao Ling and Zhenhua Luo

Abstract

This paper proposes a permanent magnet (PM)-assisted synchronous reluctance machine (PMASynRM) using ferrite magnets with the same power density as rareearth PM synchronous motors employed in Toyota Prius 2010. A suitable rotor structure for high torque density and high power density is discussed with respect to the demagnetization of ferrite magnets, mechanical strength and torque ripple. Some electromagnetic characteristics including torque, output power, loss and efficiency are calculated by 2-D finite element analysis (FEA). The analysis results show that a high power density and high efficiency of PMASynRM are obtained by using ferrite magnets.

Open access

Jian-Tao Zhang, Jing-Tao Shao, Yun-Feng Liu and Hong-Bin Wang

Abstract

Ten mixed-breed female dogs were used in the study. Abdominal wall lifting was performed with a sterilised cotton strip. Four portal sites were used to complete gasless laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (GLOHE) procedures. The proper and suspensor ligament, ovarian pedicle, and broad ligament of the uterus, uterine artery and vein were coagulated using bipolar electrocoagulation. After the uterine body was coagulated and cut, the end of the cervix was ligated with a loop suture. Blood samples were obtained before the surgery, immediately after the procedure, and on 1, 3, and 5 d postoperatively for the determination of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). No significant surgical complications occurred. After gasless laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy, a significantly higher serum IL-6 level was found immediately after the surgery and 1 d postoperatively when compared with the level observed after traditional laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (LOHE). However, no significant differences were observed in CRP level between GLOHE and LOHE. GLOHE proved to be a safe and feasible procedure in bitches.

Open access

Tao Liu, Zaopeng Dong, Hongwang Du, Lifei Song and Yunsheng Mao

Abstract

The path following control problem of the underactuated unmanned surface vessel (USV) is studied in this paper. An improved line-of-sight (LOS) guidance algorithm is proposed which can adjust adaptively based on the path following error. The global asymptotically stable path following controller is designed based on the nonlinear backstepping method and the Lyapunov stability theory. Firstly, the USV path following error model is established in the Serret-Frenet (SF) coordinate frame. The path following error in the inertial coordinate frame is transformed into the SF coordinate frame, which is used to define the path following control problem. Secondly, inspired by the traditional LOS guidance algorithm, the longitudinal path following error in the SF coordinate frame is introduced into the improved LOS guidance algorithm. This allows the algorithm to adjust adaptively to the desired path. Thirdly, in order to solve the underactuated problem of the USV path following control system, the tangential velocity of the desired path is designed as a virtual input. The underactuated problem is converted to a virtual fully actuated problem by designing the virtual control law for the tangential velocity. Finally, by combining backstepping design principles and the Lyapunov stability theory, the longitudinal thrust control law and the yaw torque control law are designed for the underactuated USV. Meanwhile, the global asymptotic stability of the path following error is proved. Simulation experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the improved LOS guidance algorithm and the path following controller.

Open access

Qiong Liu, Tao Li, Shaowen Zhang, Lingbo Qu and Baozeng Ren

Abstract

A novel effi cient adsorbent, alkali-pretreated Paeonia ostii seed coats (AP-PSC), was investigated for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from solution. Orthogonal array design was applied to optimize the process parameters viz. alkali concentration, liquid-solid ratio (LSR) and pretreatment time. The results revealed that the optimal pretreatment conditions were at 0.8% (w/w) NaOH with LSR of 0.35 L g-1 treating for 50 min. Equilibrium and kinetic studies indicated that Langmuir isotherm and Pseudo-second-order models described the experimental data well. The maximum adsorption capability was of 368.2 mg g-1 for MB at 25oC. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the AP-PSC adsorption process was physical, endothermic and spontaneous. Furthermore, the adsorption process was infl uenced by several interactive mechanisms, including ion-exchange, as well as Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds that occur concomitantly. It was concluded that AP-PSC may be potential as an effi cient adsorbent to remove MB from solution.

Open access

Zaopeng Dong, Lei Wan, Yueming Li, Tao Liu and Guocheng Zhang

Abstract

This paper presents a state feedback based backstepping control algorithm to address the trajectory tracking problem of an underactuated Unmanned Surface Vessel (USV) in the horizontal plane. A nonlinear three Degree of Freedom (DOF) underactuated dynamic model for USV is considered, and trajectory tracking controller that can track both curve trajectory and straight line trajectory with high accuracy is designed as the well known Persistent Exciting (PE) conditions of yaw velocity is completely relaxed in our study. The proposed controller has further been enriched by incorporating an integral action additionally for enhancing the steady state performance and control precision of the USV trajectory tracking control system. Global stability of the overall system is proved by Lyapunov theory and Barbalat’s Lemma, and then simulation experiments are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controller designed.

Open access

Shen Tao, Hu Chao, Dai Hailong, Yang Wenlong, Liu Hongchen and Wei Xinlao

Abstract

First principles calculations have been performed to investigate the structure, electronic and optical properties of Y3Fe5O12. Both the cubic and trigonal phases have been considered in our calculation. The calculated structural parameters are slightly larger than the experimental values. The band structures show that Y3Fe5O12 in cubic and trigonal phases have direct band gaps of 0.65 and 0.17 eV. The calculations of dielectric function, absorption, extinction coefficient, refractive index, energy loss function and reflectivity are presented.

Open access

Y. Liu, F. Tao, Y. Luo and J. Ma

Abstract

Appropriate irrigation and nitrogen fertilization, along with suitable crop management strategies, are essential prerequisites for optimum yields in agricultural systems. This research attempts to provide a scientific basis for sustainable agricultural production management for the North China Plain and other semi-arid regions. Based on a series of 72 treatments over 2003-2008, an optimized water and nitrogen scheme for winter wheat/summer maize cropping system was developed. Integrated systems incorporating 120 mm of water with 80 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer were used to simulate winter wheat yields in Hebei and 120 mm of water with 120 kg N ha-1 were used to simulate winter wheat yields in Shandong and Henan provinces in 2000-2007. Similarly, integrated treatments of 40 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer were used to simulate summer maize yields in Hebei, and 80 kg N ha-1 was used to simulate summer maize yields in Shandong and Henan provinces in 2000-2007. Under the optimized scheme, 341.74 107 mm ha-1 of water and 575.79 104 Mg of urea fertilizer could be saved per year under the wheat/maize rotation system. Despite slight drops in the yields of wheat and maize in some areas, water and fertilizer saving has tremendous long-term eco-environmental benefits.