This paper studies Inventory location routing problem in supply chain distribution network planning under vendor inventory management while considering customer inventory holding cost. In order to minimize the total cost of supply chain, an optimization model is established and an improved tabu search algorithm is used to solve the problem. From the analysis, it shows that the total cost decreases as the total vehicles capacity increases, and the maximum utilization of alternative vehicles and the minimum cost of the system don’t occur at the same time in some cases.
Swap trailer transport organisation problem originates from the traditional vehicle routing problem (VRP). Most of the studies on the problems assume that the travelling times of vehicles are fixed values. In this paper, the uncertainties of driving times are considered and a chance constrained programming problem is proposed. An improved simulated annealing algorithm is used to solve the problem proposed. The model and algorithm described in this paper are studied through a case study, and the influence of uncertainty on the results is analysed. The conclusion of this study provides theoretical support for the practice of trailer pickup transport.
Optical dating of earthquake related sediments were investigated including one modern sample and three samples from a trench excavated across the 1985 Ms7.4 Wuqia Earthquake surface rupture. The results indicated that equivalent dose (De) values vary with grain size and the method used for De determination. The residual dose of the modern sample is 0.1 ka (
Gy) for the quartz single grain measurements. Only 1.5–3.6% of the grains have a detectable OSL signal. Single grain quartz ages are similar to the expected ages. Fine grain quartz results overestimate the De values and are much older than single grain quartz and coarse grain quartz small aliquot standardized growth curve (SA-SGC) ages. Single grain quartz OSL dating may be optimal for dating earthquake related deposits, but SA-SGC can save measurement time and has potential for dating some poorly bleaching samples.
Background: Rocuronium is an alternative to succinylcholine for rapid tracheal intubation after major thermal injury and other forms of critical illness that cause denervation changes in skeletal muscle. Rocuronium may decrease the potencies of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.
Objectives: Examine whether potency of rocuronium changed during the first month after denervation, and investigate the effects of skeletal muscle denervation on potency of rocuronium.
Methods: The denervation mouse model was developed to create denervated individual cells from the flexor digitorum brevis of the hindfoot. The skeletal muscle cells were examined at day 0 in the innervated control and days 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 in the denervation group. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the cells were activated with 30 M acetylcholine, alone or in combination with various concentrations of rocuronium. Currents were recorded with a whole-cell patch-clamp technique.
Results: Rocuronium reversibly inhibited acetylcholine-activated currents in a dose-dependent fashion at different times after denervation. The inhibition concentration for the half-maximal responses of rocuronium increased 1.2- (p >0.05), 1.8-, 2.8-, 2.3-, 2.1-, and 1.9-fold (p <0.01) at day 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after denervation, respectively, compared to that at day 0 after denervation.
Conclusion: Rocuronium dose required to achieve satisfactory clinical effects changed at different durations after skeletal muscle denervation.
Traditional depth-averaged morphodynamic models for turbidity currents usually focus on the propagation of currents after plunging. However, owing to the unsteady characteristic of the plunge point locations and the tough conditions of field measurement within the plunge zone in a reservoir, it is difficult in practice to directly provide upstream boundary conditions for these models. A one-dimensional (1D) morphodynamic model coupling open-channel flow and turbidity current in a reservoir was proposed to simulate the whole processes of turbidity current evolution, from formation and propagation to recession. The 1D governing equations adopted are applicable to open-channel flows and turbidity currents over a mobile bed with irregular cross-section geometry. The coupled solution is obtained by a two-step calculation mode which alternates the calculations of open-channel flow and turbidity current, and a plunge criterion is used to determine the location of the upstream boundary for the turbidity current, and to specify the corresponding boundary conditions. This calculation mode leads to consecutive predictions of the hydrodynamic and morphological factors, from the open-channel reach to the turbidity current reach. Turbidity current events in two laboratory experiments with different set-ups were used to test the capabilities of the proposed model, with the effect of free-surface gradient also being investigated. A field-scale application of the coupled model was conducted to simulate two turbidity current events occurring in the Sanmenxia Reservoir, and the method for calculating the limiting height of aspiration was adopted to estimate the outflow discharge after the turbidity currents arrived in front of the dam. The predicted plunge locations and arrival times at different cross-sections were in agreement with the measurements. Moreover, the calculated interface evolution processes and the sediment delivery ratios also agreed generally with the observed results. Therefore, the 1D morphodynamic model proposed herein can help to select the design capacity of the outlets, and optimize the procedure for sediment release in reservoirs.
The problem of phosphorus discharge is related to environmental protection and food security. Struvite crystallization is a useful technology for phosphate recovery from wastewater. In the research, struvite crystallization process with CO2 degasification continuous U-shape reactor (CUSR) was application for phosphate recovery from animal manure wastewater. The result indicated PO43--P recovery ratio could achieve 47-53% without magnesium addition when CUSR hydraulic retention time controlled at 60 min. With extra magnesium addition, PO43--P recovery ratio could significant achieve 80-86% at magnesium addition amount 57.5 mg/dm3. PHREEQC modeling predictions trend of struvite crystallization was close to CUSR experimental results. The modeling calculation can provide a theoretical guide for operational parameters design. For seeding technology, high phosphate recovery efficiency was obtained and preformed struvite was the most effective seeding material. Surface characterization analysis demonstrated the dominant composition of chemical solids was struvite. Water extraction analysis indicated chemical solids recovery from animal manure wastewater could release PO43--P slowly and be available as slow-release fertilizer.
A novel effi cient adsorbent, alkali-pretreated Paeonia ostii seed coats (AP-PSC), was investigated for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from solution. Orthogonal array design was applied to optimize the process parameters viz. alkali concentration, liquid-solid ratio (LSR) and pretreatment time. The results revealed that the optimal pretreatment conditions were at 0.8% (w/w) NaOH with LSR of 0.35 L g-1 treating for 50 min. Equilibrium and kinetic studies indicated that Langmuir isotherm and Pseudo-second-order models described the experimental data well. The maximum adsorption capability was of 368.2 mg g-1 for MB at 25oC. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the AP-PSC adsorption process was physical, endothermic and spontaneous. Furthermore, the adsorption process was infl uenced by several interactive mechanisms, including ion-exchange, as well as Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds that occur concomitantly. It was concluded that AP-PSC may be potential as an effi cient adsorbent to remove MB from solution.
Objective To investigate the clinical application of Real-Time PCR for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) directly from nasopharyngeal swab specimens.
Methods We collected the nasal and throat swab specimens from patients or medical staffs in 3 intensive care units, blood laminar flow ward and respiratory ward in Beijing Hospital, Ministry of Health from December 2010 to April 2011. Each sample was tested by RT-PCR and conventional culture-based method for the presence of MRSA.
Results The total number of the specimens was 206. Compared with the conventional culture-based method, we demonstrated the diagnostic values for Real-Time PCR were 96.4% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity, 81.8% positive predictive rate, and 99.4% negative predictive rate. And the limit of detection was 102CFU/ml.
Conclusions This Real-Time PCR is a simple, rapid, sensitive and specific method. With the high negative predictive value, it can be used for the exclusion of MRSA colonization or infection. However, the application of its low positive predictive value should be further evaluated.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) against liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined resection injury.
Material and Methods
Eighteen miniature pigs were randomly divided into three groups: a sham operated group (sham group, laparoscopic liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined resection injury group (IRI group), and a hydrogen-rich saline intervention group (IRI + HRS group). Samples of hepatic tissue and serum were collected at the time of reperfusion and then 3 h, 1 d, and 3 d post reperfusion. Liver function, oxidative stress, autophagy-related mRNA genes, and protein expression were evaluated. Changes in cell and tissue ultrastructure were examined by transmission electron microscopy.
Compared with the sham group, the level of autophagy of hepatocytes increased in the IRI and IRI + HRS groups, corresponding to high oxidative stress and severe liver function injury. Liver function, antioxidant content, autophagy levels, and liver injury were improved after intervention with HRS in the IRI + HRS group compared with the IRI group.
Intervention with hydrogen-rich saline could exert a protective effect against liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined resection injury through the reduction of oxidative stress and hepatocyte autophagy.
Intestinal barrier dysfunction, facilitating translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal defense system including microbial barrier, immunologic barrier, mechanical barrier, chemical barrier, plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal function. Under normal circumstances, the intestinal barrier can prevent intestinal bacteria through the intestinal wall from spreading to the body. Severe infection, trauma, shock, cirrhosis, malnutrition, immune suppression conditions, intestinal bacteria and endotoxin translocation, can lead to multiple organ dysfunction. The intestinal microflora is not only involved in the digestion of nutrients, but also in local immunity, forming a barrier against pathogenic microorganisms. The derangement of the gut microflora may lead to microbial translocation, defined as the passage of viable microorganisms or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes and other extraintestinal sites. In patients with cirrhosis, primary and intestinal flora imbalance, intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction, endotoxemia is associated with weakened immunity.