Lyudmila G. Vladimirova-Kitova, Tania I. Deneva and Fedya P. Nikolov
Introduction: The effect of statins on the levels of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) is discussed in the literature as one of the pleiotropic effects of the drugs. This effect is one of the ways that could be used to control the initial stage of atherogenesis. The research in this field is inadequate and controversial. Prevention guidelines recommend that target levels of LDL cholesterol in high-risk patients should be less than 2.6 mmol/l. If the primary target is LDL -cholesterol, it is doubtful if patients can have any significant changes in the levels of the cell adhesion molecules (CAM).
Aim: Study the effect of simvastatin administered in a moderate dose of 40 mg and in a high dose of 80 mg on endothelium activation in the context of the plasma levels of soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin) in recently diagnosed untreated severe hypercholesterolemia after reaching target levels for the LDL-cholesterol below 2.6 mmol/l.
Patients and methods: One hundred patients (aged > 16 years) were included in the study. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as fasting total serum cholesterol level greater than 7.5 mmol/l and LDL -cholesterol > 4.9 mmol/l. The study was carried out in three phases, the main goal being titration of simvastatin dose from 40 to 80 mg with the purpose of achieving the target LDL level of < 2.6 mmol/l in a randomised placebo-controlled study.
Results: There was a statistically significant reduction of sVCAM-1 following the 80-mg simvastatin therapy for one month after reaching target levels of LDL-cholesterol < 2.6 mmol/l in hypercholesterolemic patients in comparison with the moderate dose (40 mg) of simvastatin for one month (p < 0.001). The results of the study demonstrated that simvastatin in a dose of 80 mg exerted an effect on the levels of some CAM, and particularly on VCA M-1 in contrast to the same drug used in a dose of 40 mg .
Conclusion: As different statins most likely have a distinctly specific effect on different adhesion molecules, this study seeks to establish a suitable panel of such adhesion molecules that may be used in monitoring statin therapy.
Yvetta A. Koeva, Stefan T. Sivkov, Valentin H. Akabaliev, Roumiana Y. Ivanova, Tania I. Deneva, Lilia S. Grozlekova and Vessela Georgieva
INTRODUCTION: Neurotrophins have an important role in regulating the development and maintenance of the peripheral and central nervous systems’ function. Thus, the neurotrophin hypothesis of schizophrenia has postulated that the changes in the brain of schizophrenic patients are the result of disturbances of developing processes involving these molecules. AIM: We analyse in the present study the changes in the serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in schizophrenic patients as possible epiphenomena of underlying alterations of the neurotrophic factor in central nervous system, reflecting its role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one schizophrenic patients satisfying the DSM-IV criteria for diagnosis of schizophrenia were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 28 age-matched mentally healthy subjects. Serum BDNF levels were determined in patients and normal controls using ELISA (Chemicon International, USA & Canada). The data were analyzed statistically with Student’s t- test in SPSS 9.0. RESULTS: The serum BDNF levels were lower in the schizophrenic patients than in the control subjects, reaching statistically significant difference (t = 2.72, p = 0.009). Female patients had lower serum BDNF levels than the male patients but the difference fell short of statistical significance (t = 0.1, p = 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: The BDNF reduction in serum indicates a potential deficit in neurotrophic factor release in patients with schizophrenia and support the concept that BDNF might be associated with schizophrenia