Active Sport Tourism in the Hungarian Population: Current Trends and Perspectives
In the past few decades, sport and tourism, two significant industries, have gone through a phase of rapid development. The relationship between the two fields is becoming more and more recognized by economic actors, policymakers and social scientists as well; nevertheless, there is a question of how widespread active sport tourism is in the different social groups of Hungarian society, and what the perspectives of sport tourism are as a leisure time activity in the future. The objective of the current paper is to answer these questions, based on survey research conducted in a representative sample (n=1027) of the Hungarian adult population. In the first phase of data analysis, the author focused on the following two questions: (1) What percentage of the population is engaged in doing regular physical exercise, and travelling during their holidays? (2) Is there a relationship between doing exercise and travelling? Based on the two dimensions (physical exercise and travelling) four groups could be separated, the in-depth analysis of the groups was carried out in the second phase of the data analysis. During this phase, the following questions were in focus: (1) How can the four groups be characterized concerning their socio-economic status? (2) What leisure activities are characteristic of them? (3) What can be said about the social networks of the members of these groups? (4) How can we characterize their attitudes to healthy lifestyle, and within this, sport? According to the results, the social basis of active sport tourism is not very wide. The majority of the Hungarian population is hindered by worsening living standards and worsening health levels, and by the lack of adequate knowledge about active sport tourism and the positive impact of it on the quality of life. A further problem is that although many people are familiar with the influence of lifestyle on health, and recognize the benefits of exercise in theory, in reality few people are involved in sporting activities, and for many, doing exercise is not a source of pleasure. That is why it is important that the messages referring to the positive impact of regular physical exercise reach the different social groups. In these messages, besides the often stressed health-preserving role, social and recreational aspects of sport as a leisure time activity should also be emphasized.
In the present study, we examine the relation between Olympians and employees of the media in Hungary through the following terms: motivations, attitudes, and rejection. The empirical research presented in this paper focused on the following research questions: 1.What motivates Olympians and employees of the media in their cooperation? 2. What kind of attitudes characterise them in their relation? 3. Why and how often do employees of the media get rejected by elite athletes? In the framework of the research, a survey was carried out among the Hungarian Olympic athletes participating at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games (N=104) and on the total population of media workers accredited to the Olympics (N=28). The data were collected by two questionnaires. The first one contained 31 questions for the Olympians, and the second one had 26 questions for the media workers. The two versions included overlapping sections as well, which made it possible to explore the respondents’ views on the same topic and get comparable outcomes in some cases. The analysis aims to present and contrast the viewpoints of Olympians and employees of the media with each other. The results show that over half of elite athletes do not like to participate in the media, but they are aware that it is necessary; that is the reason why many of them mostly accept sport related interview requests. Parallel with this, media workers assume that the majority of elite athletes like to appear in front of the public. In general terms, the main goals for elite athletes are to train well, to qualify for major international meets, and to achieve outstanding results. On the other side, the intentions of the media workers is to publish stories to the audience, which could be positive, negative, informative, provocative, or sensational. Elite athletes and employees of the media need to be more aware of each other’s motivations, attitudes and aims for better understanding each other.
In Participation in physical education is considered to be a fundamental right of pupils all over the world. In Hungary, where the rich elite sports traditions of the country are paralleled by the population’s moderate physical activity, the challenge posed by non-communicable diseases and growing obesity figures among youth was addressed by the introduction of daily P.E. in public education starting in the 2012/13 academic year. The objective of the present paper is to discuss, based on empirical research, the intended and unintended consequences of this measure in an educational and social context using the qualitative analysis of the views of key stakeholders and the quantitative analysis of statistical data on the infrastructural and personal conditions of P.E. The results indicate that neither before nor after the enforcement of the Act on Public Education were the infrastructural and personal conditions of daily P.E. created and, in addition to the intended consequences, a number of unintended consequences have also been encountered by various stakeholders. The study can also be regarded as an attempt to reveal these dysfunctions in order to contribute to positive changes in the area.
Over the past two decades, there has been a growing interest in the use of sport and other forms of physical activity to reach development goals and to support peace-building and peace-keeping processes. The sport for development and peace (SDP) sector is continuously growing in terms of the types of stakeholders involved and the number of projects implemented.
This paper examines the SDP sector using Bourdieu’s field theory and his concept of habitus and capital. For this, a qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with 10 people involved in SDP was used. Their perception of the stakeholders in the field and the connections between them are analyzed through the lens of field theory. The analysis particularly focuses on the perceived role of the former United Nations Office of Sport for Development and Peace (UNOSDP), which was closed during the data analysis.
In this study, the sporting activity of Hungarian school pupils is investigated with a focus on regional differences. The objective of the paper is to answer the following questions: Are there regional differences in pupils’ sporting activity, and, if yes, what is their relationship with the socio-cultural background of the pupils and the infrastructural and staffing conditions of schools? Has the 2012 introduction of daily physical education had a different effect on pupils’ leisure-time sporting activity in disadvantaged and affluent regions? Can the trends in the sporting activity of pupils be characterized as convergent or divergent since the introduction of daily physical education? The paper is based on an extensive study that relies on the most comprehensive database on physical education in schools, the National Assessment of Basic Competencies (NABC). The present study statistically analyzed eighth-grade pupil and school data from the 2010 and 2014 NABC. The results present the regional differences in pupils’ participation in sporting activity, their recent modification, and the main reasons behind the changes. In conclusion, the authors state that social, economic, and cultural inequalities are not clearly reflected in the sporting activity of students; however, certain data still call attention to the need to examine regional differences.