The paper demonstrates the multipurpose application of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from MODIS products for forest monitoring across the Central-European macro-region Slovakia and Hungary (i.e., the Western Carpathians and Pannonian basin). Relationships between forest dynamics and NDVI were analysed and used for determining the onset of phenophases in spring and autumn and for the assessment of forest growth and health condition. To identify the phenophases, the NDVI profile during the year was established by fitting a double logistic sigmoid function to data and phenological metrics were developed based on the calculated extreme values of the sigmoid function and its derivatives. According to our analyses, leaf unfolding and leaf fall were significantly delayed or advanced in 2018 with the increase of altitude and latitude (p < 0.01). The longitudinal aspect was significant only in the autumn phenophase with earlier onset of leaf fall towards to the east. The duration of the growing season varied extensively within the region, mainly according to altitudinal and latitudinal occurrence of beech forests. Positive associations between annual tree-ring width and standardized summer NDVI were found for conifers at local scale. The highest correlation period was between July 12 and August 12 as the most critical periods for forest growth. Slight positive correlation can be observed during March – April that could be associated with the varying start of the growing seasons. In the forest health study, whereas NDVI values could well identify the location and extent of a recent forest damage due to a combination of snow break and wind break, an urgent demand for more detailed field data was obvious.
Many scientific fields deal with the topic of multiculturalism which is gradually becoming a characteristic of the 21th century. When we examine culturally mixed societies, we compare different expectations that come as results of different habits. A goal in architecture is to respond to these different expectations, to adapt to new situations. In our research we examine the city of Pécs and its university in order to create a design concept for a new multi-belief sacred space.
In the decades elapsed since the construction of the majority of educational buildings in Hungary, there have been various social, economic, and demographic developments that affect the utility of existing infrastructure. These changes present special requirements – those not met by existing, often heritage buildings – setting a challenge to both architects and decision makers. The aim of this study is to analyse the various aspects of these developments and reflect on the extant architectural framework of education, serving as a basis for further investigations on ways architecture can enhance the learning environment.
The city of Pécs was already an important commercial and religious centre in ancient times. Because of the city’s location, it has become one of the most important cultural hubs in Central Europe. In Pécs, in various historical times, many different cultures have flourished and one of the most typical imprints of these cultures are cemeteries and burial buildings. The subject of our research is to compare Idris baba’s türbe with another iconic heritage of Pécs, the Early Christian Cemetery, furthermore as an example of this cemetery’s visitor centre, designing a plan that reattaches the neglected Turkish cemetery to the city’s life.
Just like at the Romans, the bath was the main venue of everyday life for the Turkish people as well. Besides exchanging recipes, women gave advice to each other, the men disputed important issues and often kept pre arranged marriages here. You were only allowed to pray, when you were sufficiently cleaned. Of course, it is not insignificant that the construction of baths was in many cases intended to promote material well-being, as they were usually built by senior executives who influenced the satisfaction of their followers in a very positive direction. Generally speaking, these baths were free for the reasons mentioned above, indicating to everyone that the builder was a wealthy man.
In our study, by investigating reambulated soil profiles from the Nagy-Sárrét region in Hungary, we attempt to determine the extent of changes which have occurred due to effects which impacted the landscape in terms of the soil chemistry properties of soil profiles exposed during the Kreybig soil survey more than 70 years ago. Based on the results, in the areas used as grassland, we observed a decrease in pH and an increase in the humus content of the topsoil. The increased CaCO3 following the chemical improvement of the soil which was used as cropland is still characteristic of the area. During the past decades, the investigated soils have been affected by significant changes with regard to water management, which have also modified the investigated parameters. We have classified the reambulated soil profiles among the Solonetz, Vertisol, and Gleysol reference groups based on the World Reference Base of Soil Resources (WRB) diagnostic system.