The effect of freezing rate on the quality of dried Jonagold and Idared was studied. Apple slices underwent various pre-treatments, i.e. freezing in household freezer (freezing rate: 0,5 °C/min), contact plate freezing (2 °C/min) and vacuum-freezing (3 °C/min). The quality of the freeze dried product was then evaluated in terms of water activity, hardness, color and rehydration. The freezing in household freezer (slow freezing rate) significantly reduces the duration of the freeze drying process and consequently the process costs. The slow freezing rate allows the growth of large ice crystals at the beginning of the freeze-drying process, this fact should consequently lead to larger pores and injured cell walls and thus to shorter freeze drying time. Quality of the freezing in household freezer product was assessed as higher than the quality of the other freezing pre-treated material. Slow freezing rate resulted softer texture and higher rehydration capacity, than that of other pre-treated samples. In all cases, slow freezing lead to lower final moisture content, total color difference and water activity.
Several behavioral game theory models aim at explaining why “smarter“ people win more frequently in simultaneous zero-sum games, a phanomenon, which is not explained by the Nash equilibrium concept. We use a computational model and a numerical simulation based on Markov chains to describe player behavior and predict payoffs.
The effect of freezing rate on the quality of dried Jonagold and Idared (Malus domestica Borkh.) was studied. Apple slices underwent various pre-treatments, i.e. freezing in household freezer (freezing speed/rate: 0,5◦C/min), contact plate freezing (2◦C/min) and vacuumfreezing (3◦C/min). The quality of the freeze-dried product was then evaluated in terms of water activity (aw), hardness, color and rehydration. The texture and color experiments were carried out with texture analyser and colorimeter. The aw of apple slices was measured by aw apparatus. It was found that drying time was influenced by freezing rate. The freezing in household freezer (slow freezing rate) significantly reduces the duration of the freeze-drying process and consequently the process costs. The slow freezing rate allows the growth of large ice crystals at the beginning of the freeze-drying process; this fact should consequently lead to larger pores and injured cell walls and thus to shorter freeze-drying time. Quality of the freezing in household freezer product was assessed as higher than the quality of the other freezing pre-treated material. Slow freezing rate resulted softer texture and higher rehydration capacity than that of other pre-treated samples. In all cases, slow freezing speed lead to lower final moisture content, total color difference and water activity. Freeze-dried samples prepared with higher freezing rates (3◦C/min) were the most white in color because small pores, originated by sublimation of small ice crystals formed by fast freezing.
In Hungary, not only the aftermath of the extraction in the past nearly 150 years, but also the economic changes taking place in the past two decades have had significant environmental consequences manifested, above all, in the landscape. It is, however, not sufficient to investigate the landscape components separately; it is necessary to explore connections within the landscape. Accordingly, the chief aim of this presentation has been, on the one hand, to work out the method of landscape load index, based on a quantitative database of mining claims and deposits of mining waste, which has revealed their impacts on the landscape as well. On the other hand, we have also aimed at developing the method of the mining load index of certain geographical landscape units. By calculating and analysing the indices, we have intended to build a quantitative database suitable for investigating the impacts of mining activities on the landscape. On the basis of the indices, the impacts and consequences could be ranked, and it was also possible to compare the impacts of different mining claims and waste deposits in three different landscape categories. With the main result of our examination, this will make it possible to investigate concrete problems and landscape conflicts caused by the landscape use of mining or its aftermath in different landscape units with a high load index.
The diet composition of breeding Eastern Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca) was analysed in Hungary between 2005 and 2017, and compared with two previously published datasets from the periods of 1982–1991 and 1992–2004. Altogether the distribution of 8543 prey items of 126 different species and 29 other taxa were analysed within a 36-years period. We found that the previously abundant Common Hamster (Cricetus cricetus) became marginal (7.42%), while European Sousliks (Spermophilus citellus) practically disappeared (0.03%) from the diet of Imperial Eagles. Small game species, like the Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and the Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) composed a remarkable part of the diet (11.22% and 28.11% respectively), which raised some conflicts with hunters regionally and probably also contributed to the high prevalence of persecution incidents against the eagles. In parallel with the loss of traditional prey species, corvids (13.10%), pigeons (8.90%), waterbirds (6.83%), other rodents (6.71%), Roe Deers (Capreolus capreolus) (5.59%), raptors and owls (4.88%) became regularly detected prey species. The temporal changes of the main prey categories were analysed between 1998 and 2017, when the ratio of Hamster and Pheasant showed significant decrease (-27.29% and -6.38%, respectively). The ratio of Brown Hare also showed slight decrease (-3.98%), but the change was not significant. On the other hand, the ratio of corvids, waterbirds and Roe Deers within the diet showed significant increase (+18.20%, +6.25% and +5.39%, respectively). The observed flexibility in the foraging behaviour of Imperial Eagles greatly facilitate conservation efforts, as they seems to be able to utilize the most abundant prey sources, i.e. they were not depending solely from the status of any single specific prey source. However, eagles could only shift and survive in those regions, where their traditional preys decreased, if alternative species were available for them.
The efficient operation of logistic processes requires a wide range of design tasks to ensure efficient, flexible and reliable operation of connected production and service processes. Autonomous electric vehicles support the flexible in-plant supply of cyber-physical manufacturing systems. Within the frame of this article, the extension of the Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem with recharge stations is analyzed. The objective function of the optimization problem is the minimization of operation costs. The extension of 2E-VRP means that the second level vehicles (electric vehicles, must be recharged) come from one recharge station, then pick up the products from the satellite, visit the customers and return to the recharge station from where it started. We solved the route planning problem with the application of construction heuristics and improvement heuristics. The test results indicate that the combination of this approach provides a superior efficiency.
In the 21. century, the job of a horticulturist is made easier with the help of a thermogradient table, with which the developmental stage of plants in different temperature conditions can be observed, this way, a plant's optimal ambient temperature can be found. The price of a thermo-gradient table is very high, it can reach thousands of euros. This is the reason why we had the idea of making our own thermo-gradient table, which is much more competitive, and can ease our institution horticulturist’s work.
Bird conservation on electricity transmission lines has a 40-year history in Hungary. It started with the saker conservation program. The initial small-scale activities were considerably enlarged through the LIFE projects. In the first project, 301 nest boxes for sakers of a new type made of aluminium were installed on pylons of high-voltage transmission lines. In 201 3 nearly 70% of saker pairs nested in these new boxes. An estimated 1 00 000 different birds used to be killed annually on the transmission line pylons in Hungary. During the two LIFE projects about 1 4 300 pylons were made bird-safe using improved technology and materials. Nearly 800 new bird-safe crossarms of pylons are being installed in the second project, which is expected to completely eradicate the danger
We have monitored the behaviour of different polyethylene foils including virgin medium density polyethylene (MDPE), MDPE containing pro-oxydative additives (238, 242) and MDPE with pro-oxydative additives and thermoplastic starch (297) in the soil for a period of one year. A foil based on a blend of polyester and polylactic acid (BASF Ecovio) served as degradable control. The experiment was carried out by weekly measurements of conductivity and capacity of the soil, since the setup was analogous to a condenser, of which the insulating layer was the foil itself. The twelve replications allowed monthly sampling; the specimen taken out from the soil each month were tested visually for thickness, mechanical properties, morphological and structural changes, and molecular mass. Based on the obtained capacity values, we found that among the polyethylene foils, the one that contained thermoplastic starch extenuated the most. This foil had the greatest decrease in tensile strength and elongation at break due to the presence of thermoplastic starch. The starch can completely degrade in the soil; thus, the foil had cracks and pores. The polyethylene foils that contained pro-oxydant additives showed smaller external change compared to the virgin foil, since there was no available UV radiation and oxygen for their degradation. The smallest change occurred in the virgin polyethylene foil. Among the five examined samples, the commercially available BASF foil showed the largest extenuation and external change, and it deteriorated the most in the soil.