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Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra, Jacek Strojny, Tadeusz Zając, Anna Ślizowska, Jana Klimešova and Reinhard W. Neugschwandtner


The development of seeds at various positions in the pod is asynchronous. Thus, the differences of seed dry mass production because of environmental conditions may depend on the cultivar type, type of inoculants and interrelations between seeds per pod, pods per plant or seeds per plant. Presently, a mathematical description of pea seed categorisation is missing. The aim of the study was the assessment of two groups of variables (quantitative and qualitative) for pea seed weight categorisation by ordinal regression model. Year, cultivar and inoculant constituted the first group (qualitative variables), whilst seeds per pod, the pods per plant and seeds per plant (quantitative variables) were entered as covariates in the ordinal regression model. According to the ordinal regression model variables, seeds per pod, pods per plant, seeds per plant, year and cultivar are meaningful predictors of the seed mass categories. However, the variable inoculant is marginally significant.

Open access

Fatima Pawełczyk, Leszek Chróst, Tadeusz Magiera, Adam Michczyński, Jarosław Sikorski, Konrad Tudyka and Ewelina Zając


A one-meter long peat core was taken from the peatland in Wolbrom (Silesian-Cracovian Upland, southern Poland). The analysis of the botanical composition showed that Wolbrom is a fen. Vegetation species such as Carex rostrata and Phragmites australis have been found. An age-depth model was constructed using 12 conventional radiocarbon dates and 13 lead-210 dates from the upper part of the deposit. In this work, the results of radiocarbon dating are presented. According to the model, we can estimate the age of the fen. The oldest part comes from a depth of 1.05 meter and its conventional age is 5940 ± 95 BP (modelled date 5000–4790 BC, 68.2% probability interval). The accumulation rate varies between approximately 0.53 mm·yr-1 and 6.48 mm·yr− 1.

The core has been also tested for the presence of trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) using ICP-OES. There are considerable variations in the concentrations of the tested metals – in many cases the concentration starts to rise at about 40 cm and may be connected with the human activity. This depth corresponds to the modelled age intervals 355–300 BC (17.4%) and 205–45 BC (50.7%).

Open access

Marek Krawczyk, Michał Grąt, Karolina Grąt, Karolina Wronka, Maciej Krasnodębski, Jan Stypułkowski, Łukasz Masior, Wacław Hołówko, Joanna Ligocka, Paweł Nyckowski, Tadeusz Wróblewski, Rafał Paluszkiewicz, Waldemar Patkowski, Krzysztof Zieniewicz, Leszek Pączek, Piotr Milkiewicz, Urszula Ołdakowska-Jedynak, Bogusław Najnigier, Krzysztof Dudek, Piotr Remiszewski, Ireneusz Grzelak, Oskar Kornasiewicz, Marcin Kotulski, Piotr Smoter, Mariusz Grodzicki, Michał Korba, Piotr Kalinowski, Michał Skalski, Krzysztof Zając, Rafał Stankiewicz, Marta Przybysz, Bartosz Cieślak, Łukasz Nazarewski, Małgorzata Nowosad, Konrad Kobryń, Michał Wasilewicz, Joanna Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Jolanta Piwowarska, Dorota Giercuszkiewicz, Joanna Sańko-Resmer, Sławomir Rejowski, Monika Szydłowska-Jakimiuk, Barbara Górnicka, Bogna Wróblewska-Ziarkiewicz, Michał Mazurkiewicz, Grzegorz Niewiński, Jacek Pawlak and Ryszard Pacho


Liver transplantation is a well-established treatment of patients with end-stage liver disease and selected liver tumors. Remarkable progress has been made over the last years concerning nearly all of its aspects.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of long-term outcomes after liver transplantations performed in the Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery (Medical University of Warsaw).

Material and methods. Data of 1500 liver transplantations performed between 1989 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Transplantations were divided into 3 groups: group 1 including first 500 operations, group 2 including subsequent 500, and group 3 comprising the most recent 500. Five year overall and graft survival were set as outcome measures.

Results. Increased number of transplantations performed at the site was associated with increased age of the recipients (p<0.001) and donors (p<0.001), increased rate of male recipients (p<0.001), and increased rate of piggyback operations (p<0.001), and decreased MELD (p<0.001), as well as decreased blood (p=0.006) and plasma (p<0.001) transfusions. Overall survival was 71.6% at 5 years in group 1, 74.5% at 5 years in group 2, and 85% at 2.9 years in group 3 (p=0.008). Improvement of overall survival was particularly observed for primary transplantations (p=0.004). Increased graft survival rates did not reach the level of significance (p=0.136).

Conclusions. Long-term outcomes after liver transplantations performed in the Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery are comparable to those achieved in the largest transplant centers worldwide and are continuously improving despite increasing recipient age and wider utilization of organs procured from older donors.