Using cigarettes of different circumference but a constant packing density, the weight loss during a puff, Wp, and the total deliveries of tar and nicotine were measured. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: the puff count, n, and the weight loss during a puff, Wp, were nearly proportional to the radius of the cigarette. The total deliveries of tar and nicotine were closely proportional to the weight loss during puffs. Based on these results the following equations were derived:
Ts = amount of tar in mainstream smoke,
Ns = amount of nicotine in mainstream smoke,
W = weight of tobacco column,
L = length of tobacco column,
ns = nicotine content (%) based on actual weight,
lt = length of tobacco column butt,
lf = length of filter,
µt = filtration coefficient of tobacco column,
µf = filtration coefficient of filter,
Kt / Kn experimental constants depending on blend type and others.
From these equations, the amount of tar and nicotine in mainstream smoke can easily be estimated.
Using cigarettes of different circumference but a constant packing density, the effect of circumference on the rate of formation (ratio of total delivery to the weight loss of tobacco during puffs) of various components was investigated. The rates of formation of CO and HCN increased and that of B[a]P decreased with decreasing circumference, while those of CO2, NO and vapour phase CH3CHO were independent of circumference. The differences in the effect of circumference on the rate of formation of CO, B[a]P and HCN can be explained by differences in their thermal formation during puffs.
Deliveries of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide in mainstream smoke decreased as the exogenous-potassium content of tobacco increased. The puff count was almost unchanged with added potassium malate, but slightly decreased with added nitrate. Potassium malate was more effective than the nitrate for the reduction of carbon monoxide, whereas the opposite was observed in the case of nicotine. Both the exogenous and the endogenous potassium contents influenced the reduction of carbon-monoxide delivery through a decrease in the peak temperature of the burning cone. The pungency and off-taste peculiar to the tobacco were eliminated to some extent by the addition of potassium malate at levels less than 2 % expressed as potassium.
From cigarettes made of different bright tobaccos but with a constant fractional volume, the following results were obtained. The rate of formation of CO was a more influential factor determining the amount of CO in mainstream smoke than the weight loss of the cigarette during puffs. From a stepwise multiple regression analysis it was found that the rate of formation of CO was mainly dependent on the potassium content of the tobacco and could be estimated from the amounts of potassium, total carbon, and lignin. The rate of formation of CO increased with a rise in combustion temperature, which in turn rose as the potassium content of the tobacco decreased.
Paternity analysis and analysis of molecular variance were used to determine patterns of pollen flow and genetic differentiation among pollen pools in Quercus salicina in an 11.56-ha plot in a temperate old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forest. The genotypes at seven microsatellite loci were determined for 111 adult trees and 276 seeds collected from under eight seed parents. The proportion of pollen flow from outside the plot (further than 100 m) was 52.2%, indicating that long-distance pollen flow occurred frequently in this species, as observed in other Quercus species. The pollen pools from inside and outside the plot differed genetically, and genetic structure was detected in the population of adult trees within the plot. Therefore, longdistance pollen flow from outside the plot may introduce new or low-frequent alleles, and increase genetic diversity in this population. However, the actual average distance of pollen flow within the plot was significantly shorter than the average potential distance, and negative exponential curves explained well the frequencies of matings as functions of the distance between parents, as found in other Quercus species. The genetic composition of pollen pools differed among the eight seed parents. The genetic differentiation of pollen pools between the seed parents showed significant positive correlation with the spatial distance between them, indicating that neighboring seed parents tend to accept similar pollen pools, probably because matings are frequently mediated by pollen transported over short distances
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogen. The evolution of MRSA is dynamic posing an ongoing threat to humans. The evolution of MRSA includes horizontal gene transfer, which is mediated by mobile genetic elements, plasmids, and bacteriophages, and also mutations. In this review, we clarify the recent trends in MRSA from the perspectives of drug-resistance transfer and uncontrollable infections, particularly those occurring in community settings. We first address the role of MRSA as a disseminator of multidrug resistance. We have studied the cell-to-cell transfer of drug resistance, in which transfer frequencies range from 10-3 to 10-8. The mechanisms of drug-resistance transfers include the self-transmission of large plasmids, the mobilization of small nonconjugative plasmids, the generalized transduction of phages, and the transfer of transposons with circular intermediates. We then discuss uncontrollable infections. Although several anti-MRSA agents have been developed, uncontrollable cases of MRSA infections are still reported. Examples include a case of uncontrollable sepsis arising from a community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) with the ST8/SCCmecIVl genotype, and a relapsing severe invasive infection of ST30/SCCmecIVc CA-MRSA in a student athlete. Some of these cases may be attributable to unique adhesins, superantigens, or cytolytic activities. The delayed diagnosis of highly adhesive and toxic infections in community settings may result in CA-MRSA diseases that are difficult to treat. Repeated relapse, persistent bacteremia, and infections of small-colony variants may occur. To treat MRSA infections in community settings, these unique features of MRSA must be considered to ensure that diagnostic delay is avoided.
Helicobacter pylori, one of the most prevalent human pathogens, colonizes the gastric mucosa and is associated with gastric diseases, such as gastritis and peptic ulcers, and is also a bacterial risk factor for gastric cancer. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) protein, a major virulence factor of H. pylori, is phosphorylated in cells at its Glu-Pro-IIe-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) motif and is considered to trigger gastric cancer. CagA is classified into two forms, Western CagA with EPIYA-ABC and East Asian CagA with EPIYA-ABD, with the latter associated with a high risk of developing gastric cancer. CagA causes morphological transformation of cells, yielding the “hummingbird” phenotype in AGS cells and possibly membranous pedestals in the gastric epithelium, albeit rarely. H. pylori adherence to the gastric mucosa is not yet fully understood. Here, we describe an intrafamilial infection case of H. pylori, focusing on the gastric epithelium, H. pylori adherence, and a gene mutation in a child with protein-losing gastroenteropathy (characterized by excessive loss of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract). H. pylori, which also infected family members (mother and father), was genetically a single clone with the virulence genes of an East Asian type. The patient’ gastric mucosa exhibited some unique features. Endoscopy revealed the presence of protein plugs on the mucosal surface, which were immunoelectrophoretically similar to serum proteins. Electron microscopy revealed abnormal gastric epithelial cells, totally covered with the secretions or possessing small swollen structures and irregular microvilli. The patient’s H. pylori infection was characterized by frequently occurring thick pedestals, formed along adherent H. pylori. The serum protein level returned to normal and the protein plugs disappeared after the successful eradication of H. pylori, albeit with lag periods for healing. He had a mutation in the OCRL1 gene, associated with Dent disease (asymptomatic proteinuria). Thus, in the patient’s gastric mucosa, we found the abnormal gastric epithelial cells, which may be caused by an OCRL1 mutation or H. pylori, and pedestal-rich H. pylori infection, possibly caused by a higher level of action of CagA in the abnormal epithelial cells. The data suggests a novel H. pylori virulence factor associated with “excessive plasma protein release”.