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Open access

T. Tański, K. Labisz, M. Krupiński, K. Lukaszkowicz and Ł. Krzemiński

Abstract

The investigations presented in this paper describe surface treatment performed on samples of heat-treated cast magnesium and aluminium alloy. The structure and chemical composition as well as the functional and mechanical properties of the obtained gradient/monolithic films were analysed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, the ball-on-disk tribotester and scratch testing. Moreover, investigation of the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of the samples was carried out by means of potentiodynamic polarisation curves in 1-M NaCl solution. The coatings produced by chemical vapour deposition did not reveal any delamination or defects and they adhere closely to the substrate. The coating thickness was in a range of up to 2.5 microns. Investigations using Raman spectra of the DLC films confirmed a multiphase character of the diamond-like carbon layer, revealing the sp2 and sp3 electron hybridisation responsible for both the hardness and the friction coefficient. The best wear resistance test results were obtained for the magnesium alloy substrate - AZ61, for which the measured value of the friction path length was equal to 630 m.

Open access

T. Tański, W. Pakieła, D. Janicki, B. Tomiczek and M. Król

In this paper, the influence of a laser surface treatment on the structure and properties of aluminium alloy has been determined. The aim of this work was to improve the tribological properties of the surface layer of the EN AC-51100 aluminium alloy by simultaneously melting and feeding silicon carbide particles into the molten pool. The silicon carbide powder was introduced into the liquid metal using a gravity feeder within a constant feed rate of 1 g/min. A high power diode laser (HPDL) was used for remelting. Laser beam energies used in experiments were 1.8 kW, 2.0 kW and 2.2 kW, combined with the constant velocity of 50 mm/min. As a result of the laser treatment on the aluminium alloy, a composite layer with greater hardness and wear resistance compared to the based material was obtained.

Open access

T. Tanski, A.D. Dobrzanska-Danikiewicz, K. Labisz and W. Matysiak

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to present the results of comparative quantitative analysis of selected materials (steel, magnesium and aluminium alloys) and manufacturing technologies, to indicate their development outlooks and to present its application opportunities particularly in the automotive industry. Moreover in this article describes the application of the computer-integrated prediction of development for objectivised selection of a material and surface treatment technology, so that product properties can be achieved as are expected by a client. In a broad array of applications of the computer-integrated prediction of development in the field of material engineering, including materials surface engineering, experiment planning can be distinguished, usually including the selection of: a research material, surface treatment technology, construction solution and/or methods to review the final outcome achieved against the anticipated outcome. A material for the planned materials science experiments and its surface treatment technology, the application of which contributes most to meeting the high requirements set by a prospect product used, was selected in this work using a dendrological matrix of technology value. The dendrological matrix falls into to a group of contextual matrices allowing presenting graphically a quantitative assessment of the factor, phenomenon or process investigated while taking into account two analysis factors placed on the X and Y axis of the matrix. An evaluation classifying the three groups of materials analysed, i.e. casting magnesium alloys, casting aluminium alloys, constructional steels and their surface treatment technologies, to the individual quarters of the matrix was made based on the results of own materials science and heuristic experiments supported with a review of the literature.

Considering the three groups of materials subjected to an expert assessment using a dendrological matrix being inherent part of materials surface engineering development prediction methods. Aluminium cast alloys has achieved here the best position. It was further demonstrated that laser treatment is a technology with the highest potential and attractiveness in the context of applying aluminium casting alloys for surface treatment. The metallographic examinations carried out give grounds to state that the ceramic powder alloying or feeding process will be carried out successfully in case of the aluminium alloy substrate, the powder particles will be distributed uniformly in the investigated surface layer, and that the particular layers is without cracks and failures and tightly adhere to the cast aluminium material matrix.

With regard to the above, dynamic development achieved by exploitation of numerous application and development opportunities, especially strong prospects in the automotive industry, aviation industry, military sector, sport sector and in civil engineering is a recommended by appliance of long-term action strategy.

Open access

M. Król and T. Tański

Abstract

One of the innovative technology of producing the components is Selective Laser Melting (SLM) belongs to additive manufacturing techniques. SLM technology has already been successfully applied in the automotive, aerospace and medical industries. Despite progress in material flexibility and mechanical performances, relatively poor surface finish still presents a significant weakness in the SLM process.

The scope of the present article is the study the influence of selective laser melting parameters such as laser power, scanning speed, exposure time and hatch spacing through additive manufacturing as well as the orientation of the model corresponding to the laser beam on the surface characteristic of the components made from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. By using optimized process parameters, a low surface roughness can be obtained.

In research, the machine for the selective laser melting of metal powders Renishaw AM 125 device was used. Based on experiment plan, 32 models were produced, which were examined to define the surface roughness and thus represent an influence of process parameters and the orientation on the model surface quality.

The article discusses the fundamental factors determining the roughness that gives invaluable knowledge to improve the surface quality of SLM parts.

Open access

M. Król, T. Mikuszewski, D. Kuc, T. Tański and E. Hadasik

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the influence of commercial TiBor and AlSr10 master alloys on the refine the grains size, hardness and crystallisation process based on the thermal-derivation analysis of light cast magnesium-lithium-aluminium alloys. The effects of TiBor and AlSr10 content on the characteristic parameters of the crystallisation process of Mg-Li-Al alloys were investigated by thermal-derivative analysis (TDA). Microstructural evaluations were identified by light microscope, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

The results showed that the addition of TiBor master alloy reduced the grain size of Mg-9Li-1.5Al cast alloy from 900 μm to 500 μm, while the addition of AlSr10 master alloy reduced the grain size of investigated cast alloy from 900 μm to 480 μm. Moreover, an addition of TiBor and AlSr10 simultaneously reduced the grain size from 900 μm to 430 μm.

Results from the thermal-derivative analysis showed that the addition of grain refinement causes a decrease in nucleation temperature and solidus temperature.

Open access

M. Król, T. Tański, G. Matula, P. Snopiński and A.E. Tomiczek

The paper presents the results of the crystallisation process of cast magnesium alloys based on the thermal-derivation analysis.

The effects of aluminium content and cooling rate on the characteristic parameters of the evaluation of magnesium dendrites during solidification at different cooling rates were investigated by thermal-derivative analysis (TDA). Dendrite coherency point (DCP) is defined with a new approach based on the second derivative cooling curve. Solidification behaviour was evaluated via one thermocouple thermal analysis method. Microstructural evaluations were characterised by light microscope, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This research revealed that utilisation of d2T/dt2 versus the time curve methodology allows for analysis of the dendrite coherency point.

Open access

M. Basiaga, M. Staszuk, W. Walke, T. Tański and W. Kajzer

Abstract

The objective of the study is assessment of suitability of the ALD method for application of a TiO2 layer on surface of 316LVM steel used for production of vessel stents. Selection of the appropriate process parameters for application of the layer affects its electrochemical properties, which largely determine resistance of the biomaterial to corrosion in the blood environment, thus affecting its hemocompatibility. To assess resistance of the AISI 316LVM steel with modified surface to corrosion, voltammetric and impedance measurements were conducted. The proposed variant of surface processing allows safe deformation of the TiO2 layer without its delamination.

Open access

M. Staszuk, L.A. Dobrzanski, T. Tanski, W. Kwasny and M. Musztyfaga-Staszuk

Abstract

In the work it was demonstrated that the exploitative stability of edges from tool ceramics and sintered carbides coated with gradient and multilayer PVD and CVD coatings depends mainly on the adherence of the coatings to the substrate, while the change of coating microhardness from 2300 to 3500 HV0.05, the size of grains and their thickness affect the durability of the edges to a lesser extent. It was found that some coatings showed a fine-grained structure. The coatings which contained the AlN phase with hexagonal lattice showed a considerably higher adhesion to the substrate from sialon ceramics rather than the coatings containing the TiN phase. Better adherence of the coatings containing the AlN phase with hexagonal lattice is connected with the same kind of interatomic bonds (covalent) in material of both coating and ceramic substrate. In the paper the exploitative properties of the investigated coatings in the technological cutting trials were also determined. The models of artificial neural network, which demonstrate a relationships between the edge stability and coating properties such as: critical load, microhardness, thickness and size of grains were worked out.

Open access

A.E. Tomiczek, R. Mech, L. A. Dobrzański and T. Tański

Abstract

The aim of this work was to observe the changes in the magnetomechanical properties of composite materials with different Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 (Terfenol-D) powder particle-size distributions and varying volume fractions in the polyurethane matrix. The results show a direct relationship between the properties and the particle size of the Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 powder: the increases in the particle-size distribution of the Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 powder in the matrix amplify the magnetostrictive responses and the compressive modulus values. Moreover, it was found that the key role in efficiency of the transformation of magnetic energy into mechanical plays the initial compressing pre-stress.

Open access

M. Staszuk, D. Pakuła, M. Pancielejko, T. Tański and L.A. Dobrzański

Abstract

The paper presents the results on the wear resistance of PVD coatings on cutting inserts made from sintered carbide and sialon ceramics. The exploitative properties of coatings in technological cutting trials were defined in the paper, which also examined the adhesion of coatings to the substrate, the thickness of the coating, and the microhardness. As a result, it was found that isomorphic coating with AlN-h phase of covalent interatomic bonds exhibits much better adhesion to the sialon substrate than isomorphic coating with titanium nitride TiN. These coatings assure the high wear resistance of the coated tools, and the high adhesion combined with the high microhardness and fine-grained structure assure an increase in the exploitative life of the coated tools. In the case of coatings on substrate made from sintered carbide, there was a significant influence on the properties of the tools coated with them as concerns the existence of the diffusion zone between the substrate and the coating.