Tetrix Tuerki (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae): Distribution in Ukraine, Ecological Characteristic and Features of Biology
The presence of Tetrix tuerki (Krauss, 1876) in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and Transcarpathian Region nowadays is confirmed. Three different morphological forms of T. tuerki are distinguished based on the wings and prothorax lengths: brachypterous, mesopterous and macropterous forms. Only two forms of adults (mesopterous and brachypterous) and the larvae of middle and the last instars hibernate. Adults of macropterous individuals of T. tuerki appear in June, developing from the hibernated larvae. Some larvae of T. tuerki are emerged from eggs and become the adults at the same year, transforming mesopterous and brachypterous forms. In spring T. tuerki (brachypterous and mesopterous individuals) lives on sandy-pebble alluvion of mountain river coasts, but in summer it (macropterous individuals) prefers alluvions near the middle part of the river far from its coasts. All three morphological forms of T. tuerki inhabit the middle flows of mountain rivers and the foothills outside a mountain system; brachypterous and mesopterous individuals are widespread in the upper reaches and in the lower flows of mountain rivers where alluvions are rare. Body length of specimens of T. tuerki, inhabiting upper and lower flows mountain rivers are smaller then in other river sides. Vibratory signals of T. tuerki are described for the first time and the oscillograms of the vibratory signals are provided.