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T. Kvačkaj, A. Kováčová, J. Bidulská, R. Bidulský and R. Kočičko

Abstract

In this study, static, dynamic and tribological properties of ultrafine-grained (UFG) oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) copper were investigated in detail. In order to evaluate the mechanical behaviour at different strain rates, OFHC copper was tested using two devices resulting in static and dynamic regimes. Moreover, the copper was subjected to two different processing methods, which made possible to study the influence of structure. The study of strain rate and microstructure was focused on progress in the mechanical properties after tensile tests. It was found that the strain rate is an important parameter affecting mechanical properties of copper. The ultimate tensile strength increased with the strain rate increasing and this effect was more visible at high strain rates (ε˙~102s1) . However, the reduction of area had a different progress depending on microstructural features of materials (coarse-grained vs. ultrafine-grained structure) and introduced strain rate conditions during plastic deformation (static vs. dynamic regime). The wear behaviour of copper was investigated through pin-on-disk tests. The wear tracks examination showed that the delamination and the mild oxidational wears are the main wear mechanisms.

Open access

K. Sülleiová, B. Ballóková, M. Besterci and T. Kvačkaj

Abstract

The development of the nanostructure in commercial pure copper and the strength and ductility after severe plastic deformation (SPD) with the technology of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) are analysed. Experimental results and analyses showed that both strength and ductility can be increased simultaneously by SPD. The final grain size decreased from the initial 50μm by SPD to 100-300 nm after 10 passes. An increase of the ductility together with an increase of strength caused by SPD are explained by a strong grain refinement and by a dynamic equilibrium of weakening and strengthening, and it is visible on the final static tensile test stress-strain charts.

Open access

J. Bidulská, I. Pokorný, T. Kvačkaj, R. Bidulský and M. Grande

Study of the High-Temperature Behaviour of Aluminium Alloy En Aw 2014

The high-temperature behaviour of aluminium alloy EN AW 2014 was investigated in a wide range of deformation temperatures and strain rates. The influence of strain rate and temperature on the peak stress was analysed using the conventional constitutive equation (relating strain rate, flow stress, and temperature) and by means of precise definition of the peak stress value, in the non-linear regression model. Moreover, a study on apparent activation energy of EN AW 2014 stabilized by zirconium was carried out using Arrhenius-type plot. The stress-strain curves exhibit rapid increase up to the peak value followed by a gradual softening up to the material fracture, without the steady state usually observed before the fracture. In terms of formability maps, the presented experimental results exhibit a decrease of ductility, respectively with an increase of strain rate and a decrease of temperature, respectively.

Open access

T. Kvačkaj, R. Kočiško, J. Tiža, J. Bidulská, A. Kováčová, R. Bidulský, J. Bacsó and M. Vlado

The aluminium alloy with chemical conception AlMgSi prepared by PM (powder metallurgy) technology was used. The experiments such as a ring and compression test, ECAR (equal channel angular rolling) for determination of friction coefficient, stress-strain curves and material workability based on analytical methods (Freudenthal, Cockcroft-Latham and normalized Cockcroft-Latham criteria) were performed. Numerical simulations of sample processed by ECAR was carried out by a software Deform 3D with focus on the description of stress, strain fields and workability criteria (Cockcroft-Latham and normalized Cockcroft-Latham). The prediction of fracture formations in a real ECAR sample during processing conditions was also done.

Open access

J. Bidulská, T. Kvačkaj, I. Pokorný, R. Bidulský and M. Actis Grande

The main aim of this paper is to investigate, by means of comparison of experimental studies and mathematical models, the evolution of porosity as consequence of pressing, sintering and ECAPping an aluminium based powder (6xxx). After applying the compacting pressure, specimens were dewaxed in a ventilated furnace at 400º for 60 min. Sintering was carried out in a vacuum furnace at 610ºC for 30 min. The specimens were then ECAPed for 1 pass. The 2-dimensional quantitative image analysis was carried out by means of SEM and OM for the evaluation of the aforementioned characteristics. Results show the effect of processing parameters on the fracture/microstructure behaviour of the studied aluminium PM alloy. Quantitative image analysis, as well as fractographic interpretation and microstructure identification of weak sites in the studied aluminium PM alloy, provide a reliable and reproducible statistical procedure for the identification of the critical pore sizes.

Open access

A. Kováčová, T. Kvačkaj, R. Bidulský, J. Bidulská, R. Kočiško, J. Dutkiewicz and L. Lityńska-Dobrzyńska

Abstract

The present paper deals with a study on formation of specific substructural features in OFHC copper processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) considering different strain rate conditions. Since two mechanical tensile testing equipments were being used, strain rate response could be studied in a wide range (both in static and dynamic regimes). Moreover, the copper before tensile testing was subjected to drawing and ECAP, separately, which allows to study the influence of both structural and substructural features (CG vs. UFG structure). Considering the static regime, it was found that UFG materials have advanced properties, showing higher strength and ductility in comparison to their CG counterparts. However, this is valid only to the critical value of the strain rate. In the dynamic regime, mathematical linearized results imply that ultimate tensile strength in samples processed by ECAP increases twice every 10 s−1 rising, however, they lost approximately the same plastic properties than samples after drawing. Differences in the progress of mechanical properties are related to specific structural and substructural features evolved in the material during ECAP processing. Above mentioned features were studied in detail by methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).