Analysis of Regional Peculiarities of Strongylid (Nematoda, Strongylidae) Biodiversity in Domestic Horses in Ukraine
Analysis of regional peculiarities of species composition and structure of strongylid communities in domestic horses from various parts of Ukraine is presented. More than 86,000 strongylid specimens were collected using the diagnostic deworming technique from 180 horses in 10 regions (Kyivska, Kyrovogradska, Poltavska, Kharkivska, Sumska, Donetska, Ternopilska, Zakarpatska, Khersonska and AR Crimea) and identified to the species level. Thirty-three strongylid species from 12 genera were found - 26 species in the subfamily Cyathostominae and seven - in the subfamily Strongylinae. General structure of the strongylid community appeared to be multimodal. The highest biodiversity of strongylids was found in horses from Southern regions of Ukraine (29 species from 12 genera) and the lowest in Eastern regions (15 species from six genera). However, no statistically significant differences in species composition of strongylid communities in horses from various regions of Ukraine were found (p > 0.05). Comparison of strongylid biodiversity in domestic horses from Ukraine with that from others countries revealed the highest similarity of the strongylid communities from Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Poland; the lowest was in horses from South Africa and north-western Europe (France and the UK). Our results showed that the peculiarities of horse-keeping conditions influenced the biodiversity of the strongylid communities in domestic horses much more than climatic conditions in various regions.
The Community of Strongylids (Nematoda, Strongylida) of Working Donkeys (Equus Asinus) in Ukraine
The aim of our work was to study the species composition of the strongylid community of donkeys and to explore the influence of anthelmintic treatments on the community structure. Strongylid nematodes were collected by the diagnostic deworming technique from 33 donkeys from the riding school "Chudo-oslik" (Crimea) (25), from Kharkiv (3) and Kyiv zoos (2) and Kyiv riding schools (3). Seventeen species were found in donkeys studied: 16 species of Cyathostominae and 1 of Strongylinae. Between 2 and 7 species were found per donkey (average of 4.2 ± 2.8). Cyathostomum tetracanthum, C. catinatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus goldi and C. longibursatus) dominated in the community; they were found in 80-100% animals studied and comprised 91.7% of the total number of strongylids collected. Two species C. tetracanthum and Cylicocyclus auriculatus were found to be specific for donkeys. The results obtained showed a reduction of the species richness of the strongylid community in donkeys from riding schools and zoos caused by lack of grazing and by regular anthelmintic treatments.
Strongylid Community Structure of the Przewalski's Horses (Equus ferus Przewalskii) from the Biosphere Reserve "Askania-Nova", Ukraine
Species composition and the structure of strongylid community of the Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii Poljakov, 1881) semi-free population at the "Askania-Nova" Biosphere Reserve were studied by the in vivo method of diagnostic deworming. After deworming of 24 adult Przewalski's horses by the anthelmintic "Univerm" (0.2% aversectin C, Russia), 25,815 strongylid specimens were collected and identified. Thirty-one strongylid species of 12 genera were found including 6 species of the subfamily Strongylinae and 25 — of Cyathostominae. Nine to 18 strongylid species (average 14.5 ± 2.5) were found per horse. Cyathostomes (Cyathostominae) dominated in the Przewalski's horse strongylid community: 9 species (Cyathostomum catinatum, C. pateratum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, C. insigne, C. leptostomum, C. ashworthi, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, C. goldi and C. minutus) were found in more than 80% of horses examined and composed 94.1% of the total number of strongylid collected. Strongyles (Strongylinae) were found in 100% of the E. ferus przewalskii examined; prevalence of separate species was from 4.2% to 58.3%. The general structure of the strongylid community was multimodal with dominant (9 species), subdominant (4), background (4) and rare (14) species. The list of strongylid species found in the Przewalski'si horses in Ukraine was enlarged to 37 species.
Helminth Fauna of Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus) in Ukraine: Biodiversity and Parasite Community
The results of survey of helminth species diversity of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus, 1758) from nine regions of Ukraine are presented. Ninety-two roe deer from Chernigivska, Zhytomyrska, Kyivska, Vinnytska, Rivnenska, Ternopilska, Khmelnitska, Sumska and Cherkasska regions were examined by the partial helminthological dissection. Totally 30,753 helminth specimens were collected and identified by morphological criteria. Prevalence of roe deer infection with helminths was 92.4%. Sixteen helminth species (1 of the Class Trematoda, 2 — of Cestoda and 13 — of Nematoda) were found. Setaria cervi (prevalence — 10.9%) was found in visceral cavity. Dictyocaulus eckerti (6.9%) and D. capreolus (2.3%) was found in lungs. Taenia hydatigena larvae (2.3%) were found in mesentery. Paramfistomum cervi (10.9%), Haemonchus contortus (57.6%), Ashworthius sidemi (40.2%), Marshallagia marshalli (15.2%), Nematodirus oiratinus (1.1%), Trichostrongylus axei (3.3%) were found in stomach. Moniesia expansa (1.1%), Bunostomum phlebotomum (10.9%) were found in small intestine. Trichocephalus ovis (18.5%), Oesophagostomum venulosum (7.6%) and O. dentatum (1.1%) were found in caecum. Chabertia ovina (28.3%) was found in large intestine. Forty-four helminth associations were separated in the roe deer examined.
Comparative studies of the intestinal strongylid communities of 14 ponies, 6 donkeys and 9 zebras from the “Askania-Nova” Biosphere reserve (Ukraine) were carried out after deworming the hosts with aversectin drug. Faecal sampling (200 g each) was performed at 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours after treatment; all nematodes expelled were collected and identified. Thirty strongylid species from 12 genera were found; 7 species from the Strongylinae and 23 species from Cyathostominae. In ponies 27 species were found (range 8–23; mean 14 ± 3.8). In donkeys 23 species were found (range 11–15; mean 12 ± 1.3). Cyathostomum tetracanthum a species specific for donkeys was found for the first time in Ukraine. In zebras 17 species were found (range 2–13; mean 7 ± 3.6). The results obtained confirmed the specificity of the intestinal strongylid fauna of different equid species grazing on the same pastures in the “Askania-Nova” reserve.
Ciliates on the Macrophytes in Industrially Heated Lakes (Kujawy Lakeland, Poland)
The ciliate assemblage on the macrophytes was examined in 2005 during the vegetation period in the Konińskie Lakes which are heating by post-cooling waters from thermal electric plants. As a result of changed temperature regimen the alien thermophilic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis is becoming increasingly common in the littoral zone. A total of 150 ciliate taxa belonging to 27 orders were found. Greater ciliate species diversity was found on architecturally complex, submerged forms such as Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum. By contrast the ciliate compositions on emergent macrophytes with simple architecture in their submerged parts, such as Typha, Sparganium, or Acorus, were less species rich. Despite the simple architecture of Vallisneria leaves, the ciliate diversity on them was high. The results show that replacement of native macrophytes by the alien form V. spiralis in heated lakes did not impoverish the ciliate diversity.
Necropsy and extensive parasitological examination of dead northern elephant seal (NES) pups was done on San Miguel Island, California, in February, 2015. The main interest in the current study was to determine if hookworms were present in NESs on San Miguel Island where two hookworm species of the genus Uncinaria are known to be present - Uncinaria lyonsi in California sea lions and Uncinaria lucasi in northern fur seals. Hookworms were not detected in any of the NESs examined: stomachs or intestines of 16 pups, blubber of 13 pups and blubber of one bull. The results obtained in the present study of NESs on San Miguel Island plus similar finding on Año Nuevo State Reserve and The Marine Mammal Center provide strong indication that NES are not appropriate hosts for Uncinaria spp. Hookworm free-living third stage larvae, developed from eggs of California sea lions and northern fur seals, were recovered from sand. It seems that at this time, further search for hookworms in NESs would be nonproductive.
To increase the currently limited knowledge addressing acanthocephalans parasitizing California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 33 animals including pups, juvenile and adult males and females from the Marine Mammal Center (TMMC), Sausalito, California, USA were examined. Totally, 2,268 specimens of acanthocephalans representing five species from the genera Andracantha (A. phalacrocoracis and Andracantha sp.), Corynosoma (C. strumosum and C. obtuscens) and Profilicollis (P. altmani) were found. Profilicollis altmani and A. phalacrocoracis, predominantly parasitize fish-eating birds; they were registered in Z. californianus for the first time. Prevalence and intensity of California sea lion infection and transmission of acanthocephalans in these hosts of different age groups were analyzed and discussed. We provide brief morphological descriptions of the five species of acanthocephalan found in California sea lions.
Analysis of the species composition and community structure of helminths in saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) was performed using multi-year (1979-2013) data collected from the “Askania Nova” Biosphere Reserve, Ukraine. During this period, 31 saiga antelopes of different ages (7 calves, 24 adults) were examined; totally, more then 63,900 helminth specimens were collected and identified by morphological criteria. Levels of saiga infection by nematodes were from 39 to 671 EPG (207±132 SD); seasonal fluctuations in saiga infections were insignificant (Mann-Whitney test; p>0.05).
Nineteen helminth species were found in saigas in the “Askania Nova”: 3 species of Cestoda (Avitellina centripunctata, Moniezia expansa and Taenia hydatigena) and 16 species of Nematoda (Chabertia ovina, Haemonchus contortus, Marshallagia marshalli, Cooperia oncophora, Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Aonchotheca bovis, Skrjabinema ovis, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. probolorus, Ostertagia ostertagi, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Nematodirus spp., Trichurus ovis). From 2 to 13 species per one host were observed. Nematodes dominated within the parasite community and composed more then 99 % of the total helminths found. Significant differences were found in helminth diversity between young and adult saigas (p<0.05). Prevalence- frequency distribution revealed multimodal structure of helminth community with dominant, subdominant, background and rare species. The highest number of helminthes (14 species and 50 % of the total amount) inhabited the small intestine; 11 species (45 %) were found in the abomasum and 9 species (5 %) in the large intestine. The Bray-Curtis cluster analysis revealed significant differences within the helminth communities in saigas from the “Askania Nova” Biosphere Reserve and saigas from Kazakhstan, Dagestan and Kalmykia.
Examination of the biodiversity of horse strongylid communities was performed on 51 domestic horses from Southern Poland and Western Ukraine by in vivo method. All horses were dewormed with macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics. Strongylids (34,715 specimens) were collected and identified by morphological criteria. In Poland, 25 strongylid species were found. Five cyathostome species dominated in the community. Large strongyles were found in 23.1 % of horses and composed 0.56 % of total strongylid number. General structure of strongylid community was multimodal with dominant, subdominant, background and rare species. In Ukraine, 19 species were found. Five cyathostome species dominated in the community. Strongylinae were found in 17.4 % of horses and composed 0.07% of community. General structures of strongylid community were multimodal or bimodal depends on type of horse keeping conditions. Regularity of anthelmintic treatment was found to be more influential on strongylid community structure than differences in horse-keeping conditions at the both countries.