Helminth Fauna of Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus) in Ukraine: Biodiversity and Parasite Community
The results of survey of helminth species diversity of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus, 1758) from nine regions of Ukraine are presented. Ninety-two roe deer from Chernigivska, Zhytomyrska, Kyivska, Vinnytska, Rivnenska, Ternopilska, Khmelnitska, Sumska and Cherkasska regions were examined by the partial helminthological dissection. Totally 30,753 helminth specimens were collected and identified by morphological criteria. Prevalence of roe deer infection with helminths was 92.4%. Sixteen helminth species (1 of the Class Trematoda, 2 — of Cestoda and 13 — of Nematoda) were found. Setaria cervi (prevalence — 10.9%) was found in visceral cavity. Dictyocaulus eckerti (6.9%) and D. capreolus (2.3%) was found in lungs. Taenia hydatigena larvae (2.3%) were found in mesentery. Paramfistomum cervi (10.9%), Haemonchus contortus (57.6%), Ashworthius sidemi (40.2%), Marshallagia marshalli (15.2%), Nematodirus oiratinus (1.1%), Trichostrongylus axei (3.3%) were found in stomach. Moniesia expansa (1.1%), Bunostomum phlebotomum (10.9%) were found in small intestine. Trichocephalus ovis (18.5%), Oesophagostomum venulosum (7.6%) and O. dentatum (1.1%) were found in caecum. Chabertia ovina (28.3%) was found in large intestine. Forty-four helminth associations were separated in the roe deer examined.
Ciliates on the Macrophytes in Industrially Heated Lakes (Kujawy Lakeland, Poland)
The ciliate assemblage on the macrophytes was examined in 2005 during the vegetation period in the Konińskie Lakes which are heating by post-cooling waters from thermal electric plants. As a result of changed temperature regimen the alien thermophilic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis is becoming increasingly common in the littoral zone. A total of 150 ciliate taxa belonging to 27 orders were found. Greater ciliate species diversity was found on architecturally complex, submerged forms such as Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum. By contrast the ciliate compositions on emergent macrophytes with simple architecture in their submerged parts, such as Typha, Sparganium, or Acorus, were less species rich. Despite the simple architecture of Vallisneria leaves, the ciliate diversity on them was high. The results show that replacement of native macrophytes by the alien form V. spiralis in heated lakes did not impoverish the ciliate diversity.
Necropsy and extensive parasitological examination of dead northern elephant seal (NES) pups was done on San Miguel Island, California, in February, 2015. The main interest in the current study was to determine if hookworms were present in NESs on San Miguel Island where two hookworm species of the genus Uncinaria are known to be present - Uncinaria lyonsi in California sea lions and Uncinaria lucasi in northern fur seals. Hookworms were not detected in any of the NESs examined: stomachs or intestines of 16 pups, blubber of 13 pups and blubber of one bull. The results obtained in the present study of NESs on San Miguel Island plus similar finding on Año Nuevo State Reserve and The Marine Mammal Center provide strong indication that NES are not appropriate hosts for Uncinaria spp. Hookworm free-living third stage larvae, developed from eggs of California sea lions and northern fur seals, were recovered from sand. It seems that at this time, further search for hookworms in NESs would be nonproductive.
To increase the currently limited knowledge addressing acanthocephalans parasitizing California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 33 animals including pups, juvenile and adult males and females from the Marine Mammal Center (TMMC), Sausalito, California, USA were examined. Totally, 2,268 specimens of acanthocephalans representing five species from the genera Andracantha (A. phalacrocoracis and Andracantha sp.), Corynosoma (C. strumosum and C. obtuscens) and Profilicollis (P. altmani) were found. Profilicollis altmani and A. phalacrocoracis, predominantly parasitize fish-eating birds; they were registered in Z. californianus for the first time. Prevalence and intensity of California sea lion infection and transmission of acanthocephalans in these hosts of different age groups were analyzed and discussed. We provide brief morphological descriptions of the five species of acanthocephalan found in California sea lions.
More than 30 species of exotic ungulates are currently kept in the Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve (Kherson Region, Ukraine). During the years 1978–2014, 146 ungulates of 24 species (16 species of Bovidae, 4 — Cervidae, 4 — Camelidae) were examined by partial helminthological dissection; more than 402,700 specimens of helminths were collected and identified. The purpose of the present study was to summarize these data and analyze the species diversity in exotic ungulates. Totally, 38 species of helminths: 3 species of Trematoda, 6 — Cestoda, 29 — Nematoda were found. Ungulates from the family Bovidae were the most infected; they harbored 36 species of helminths, 1–18 species per host. In Camelidae, 15 species were found; 3–10 species per host. Cervidae harbored 9 species; 1–6 species per host. The highest species diversity was detected in the ungulates introduced from regions with climatic conditions similar to those in southern Ukraine: saiga antelope (19 species), European mouflon (18), Barbary sheep (18), and markhor (17). Ten species typical for domestic ruminants (Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus sp., Aonchotheca bovis, Moniezia expansa, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Ostertagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. probolurus and Trichuris ovis) dominated in the parasite communities. Our results indicated reduction in the species diversity and alteration of the parasite community structures in these exotic ungulates kept in the Askania-Nova Reserve compared to their natural habitats.
Analysis of the species composition and community structure of helminths in saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) was performed using multi-year (1979-2013) data collected from the “Askania Nova” Biosphere Reserve, Ukraine. During this period, 31 saiga antelopes of different ages (7 calves, 24 adults) were examined; totally, more then 63,900 helminth specimens were collected and identified by morphological criteria. Levels of saiga infection by nematodes were from 39 to 671 EPG (207±132 SD); seasonal fluctuations in saiga infections were insignificant (Mann-Whitney test; p>0.05).
Nineteen helminth species were found in saigas in the “Askania Nova”: 3 species of Cestoda (Avitellina centripunctata, Moniezia expansa and Taenia hydatigena) and 16 species of Nematoda (Chabertia ovina, Haemonchus contortus, Marshallagia marshalli, Cooperia oncophora, Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Aonchotheca bovis, Skrjabinema ovis, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. probolorus, Ostertagia ostertagi, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Nematodirus spp., Trichurus ovis). From 2 to 13 species per one host were observed. Nematodes dominated within the parasite community and composed more then 99 % of the total helminths found. Significant differences were found in helminth diversity between young and adult saigas (p<0.05). Prevalence- frequency distribution revealed multimodal structure of helminth community with dominant, subdominant, background and rare species. The highest number of helminthes (14 species and 50 % of the total amount) inhabited the small intestine; 11 species (45 %) were found in the abomasum and 9 species (5 %) in the large intestine. The Bray-Curtis cluster analysis revealed significant differences within the helminth communities in saigas from the “Askania Nova” Biosphere Reserve and saigas from Kazakhstan, Dagestan and Kalmykia.
Examination of the biodiversity of horse strongylid communities was performed on 51 domestic horses from Southern Poland and Western Ukraine by in vivo method. All horses were dewormed with macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics. Strongylids (34,715 specimens) were collected and identified by morphological criteria. In Poland, 25 strongylid species were found. Five cyathostome species dominated in the community. Large strongyles were found in 23.1 % of horses and composed 0.56 % of total strongylid number. General structure of strongylid community was multimodal with dominant, subdominant, background and rare species. In Ukraine, 19 species were found. Five cyathostome species dominated in the community. Strongylinae were found in 17.4 % of horses and composed 0.07% of community. General structures of strongylid community were multimodal or bimodal depends on type of horse keeping conditions. Regularity of anthelmintic treatment was found to be more influential on strongylid community structure than differences in horse-keeping conditions at the both countries.
The Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii, Poljakov, 1881) is an endangered subspecies of wild horses (Equus ferus) native to steppes of Central Asia. In 2015, the Program of Establishing of a Semi-Free Population of the Przewalski’s Horse in the Orenburg Reserve was launched by FGFI “Orenburg Reserves”. The first group of 6 Przewalski’s horses (2 males and 4 females) born in the semi-reserve Le Villaret, France, was transported to the Orenburg Reserve. Th e aim of this work was to investigate the species composition of the intestinal parasite community and to monitor the dynamics of the parasite infection of the newly established Przewalski’s horse population. The level of infection by gastrointestinal parasites within the horses was examined by the McMaster method. Gastrointestinal parasites were collected in vivo after deworming of the horses with macrocyclic lactone drug “Univerm” (0.2 % aversectin C, PharmBioMed, Russia). Totally, 20 species of parasites were found: 19 species of nematodes (species of the family Strongylidae and Habronema muscae) and one species of botflies from the genus Gasterophilus. Th e widest species diversity (18 species from 8 genera) was observed in strongylids: 2 species from the subfamily Strongylinae and 16 species from Cyathostominae. Distribution of strongylid species between ten prevalence classes revealed a bimodal structure (“core-satellite” mode) of the strongylid community. Th e results obtained in this study are to be considered as the initial data for the further parasitological monitoring of Przewalski’s horses at the Orenburg State Reserve.
Prevalence of Hookworms, Uncinaria lucasi (Ancylostomatidae), in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Lyons, E. T., Kuzmina, T. A., Carie, J. L., Tolliver, S. C., Spraker, T. R. — Review of main studies on biology and ecology of the hookworm Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901 performed on St. Paul Island, Alaska, is presented. Current data on prevalence of adult hookworms parasitizing northern fur seals (NFS), Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758, were obtained based on the examination of the intestines of dead NFS pups and subadult 3-4 year-old males in July and August of 2011-2013. In addition, blubber samples collected from subadult NFS males were examined for parasitic third stage hookworm larvae (L3). All current data were compared with previously published studies performed in 1950s-1960s. Current prevalence of U. lucasi in dead pups collected from Reef Rookery was 4.9 % in 2011, 0 % in 2012 and 10.5 % in 2013. This rookery has a rocky substrate. On sandy rookeries prevalence was up to 75 % on Morjovi Rookery and 50 % on Vostochni Rookery. Parasitic L3 were recovered in 2.5 % of subadult males examined in 2013. Decreasing prevalence of hookworm infection of dead pups and subadult males during the last several years follows the tremendous decline in the number of fur seals in the herd on St. Paul Island during last several decades.