This work complements and structures knowledge in the field of logistics centres (with focus on the Łódź region). It presents a thorough analysis of strategic documents of the European Union in reference to the functioning of international transport networks. It also provides a detailed description of logistics facilities operations from the theoretical standpoint and definition of relations in points where logistics centres and TEN-T networks overlap. The result of this work is a set of recommendations referring to effective development of logistics centres on the background of transport corridors.
The article presents the results of research devoted to comparing accessibility in terms of theoretical and real travel times by car at inter-regional, intra-regional and intra-urban scales. The research strives to achieve three types of aim. The methodological aim is to assess the suitability of the data for research into transport geography, in particular with regard to accessibility. This objective also focuses on developing a method for acquiring and processing source data from suppliers. The cognitive goal is to analyse the spatial differentiation of theoretical and real travel times at different spatial scales. In terms of application, the focus is on the use of real travel time data for transport planning. Data on theoretical travel times includes the author’s own calculations based on analyses whose key assumption is that cars move on a road network at the maximum speeds allowed by the law with all other variables being excluded. The other source of data (on real travel times) is the Distance Matrix Response provided by Google Maps APIs. Due to methods such as isochrones and cumulative accessibility it was concluded that data obtained from Google servers is highly useful for research into transport geography, including time accessibility analyses. The patterns presented here however cannot be treated uncritically or used for unrestricted analysis. With regard to the cognitive goal, it should be emphasized that spatial variations in travel differences, resulting from theoretical and real variants for journeys between regional cities in Poland, between settlement units within one region, or within one of its large cities, are heterogeneous depending on the nature and length of the journey. Therefore, depending on the spatial extent of analysis, divergences in travel times should be expected.
The aim of the article is to analyse the land transport accessibility of two trans-European corridors within the boundaries of Poland. The adjustment of the course of transport routes to the distribution of the population and the country’s land development (including economic potential and logistic infrastructure) was outlined using measurements of cumulative accessibility. The results were presented in both cartographic form (isochrone approach) and tabular form (cumulative approach). Research was conducted adopting different forms of transport used for relocation (including foot traffic, car, rail and multimodal transport) and both the current and target layout of the transport network. This made it possible to determine the changes that will effectively run the process of investment in transport infrastructure on Polish territory. This allowed the identification of the areas of Poland which are particularly conveniently located in relation to domestic connections (in terms of the international network) and those for which the European transport network remains difficult to access.
The article seeks to analyse the accessibility of hospital healthcare to inhabitants of Łódź voivodeship in 2015. The analysis comprises all the communes of the Łódź region as well as those of the neighbouring voivodeships from which the theoretical time of reaching hospitals in Łódź voivodeship does not exceed the maximum time assumed in the research. Accessibility was determined in reference to 51 hospitals, assuming that their ‘attractiveness’ was related to the number of permanent beds they offered. The research was conducted using the three-step floating catchment area method (3SFCA).
Marta Borowska-Stefańska, Szymon Wiśniewski and Klaudia Modrzejewska
This article classifies housing development according to horizontal and vertical intensity in the administrative capitals of each of the Polish provinces. Moreover, the distribution of individual types of residential development is assessed on the example of Warsaw. The function of the place of residence is an elementary urban function which translates itself into a large share of residential development in its structure. It assumes different forms which depend on many factors, such as the location in the given region of the world, conditions of the natural environment, housing tradition or location in the city. It should be borne in mind that cities tend to be heterogeneous urban organisms in which different periods of their development overlap which is reflected in the variations in the appearance of development in its individual parts. The character of buildings changes together with distance from the city centre: the farther from it, the less urban the development tends to be, gradually turning into a rural one both within the city boundaries and outside them. The distribution of residential buildings was analysed with the use of measures of centrography, i.e. centre of gravity, standard deviation and the standard deviation ellipse. Data on residential buildings in the cities analysed was obtained from Polish official geodetic and cartographic databases (państwowy zasób geodezyjny i kartograficzny [PZGiK]) – in particular, Database of Topographic Objects. In turn, layers with land parcels come from the Land-Parcel Identification System [LPIS]. Further analyses use information regarding the vertical and horizontal intensity according to the classification proposed by S. Liszewski (1978).
Marta Borowska-Stefańska, Katarzyna Leśniewska-Napierała and Szymon Wiśniewski
The aim of the study is to evaluate the spatial variation in the size and shape of land plots in Mazowieckie voivodship. For the purposes of the study both the shape and the compactness of the plots were measured, and the typology of communes was drawn based on this information. Subsequently, based on the two indicators related to the shape of plots, four types of communes were distinguished, depending on whether their values were higher or lower than the average (Dzieciuchowicz and Dmochowska-Dudek, 2014). In addition, the paper includes calculations for the average share of unused land in the plot surface area, the average horizontal intensity of parcel development, and an indication of the type of land coverage dominant in the plots, by commune type. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used in the analyses. It has been found that the studied area is dominated by plots characterised by small diversity in shape and high degree of compactness - mainly in the north-western part of the voivodship, as well as those where plots are highly diverse in shape and low in compactness - in the south-eastern part of the voivodship.
Magdalena Fronczek-Wojciechowska, Karolina Kopacz, Gianluca Padula, Szymon Wiśniewski and Anna Wojnarowska
Population ageing and growing awareness of the need for physical activity is one of the most important topics in Europe nowadays. But it should be noted that there is still no interdisciplinary and integrated approach to urban environment planning concerning physical activity of elderly people which would take into account special needs and possibilities of this particular group. Elderly people represent one of the groups which are threatened with social exclusion for different reasons. This article presents a proposal for a method of constructing a spatial system consisting of natural and anthropogenic elements of urban environment which can be interpreted as Inclusive Urban Green Infrastructure, enabling active and healthy ways of recreation, including the needs of elderly persons. It is based on the existing elements of the environment, but to create a well-functioning system in urban space it is necessary to introduce additional elements, both natural and man-created. The method refers to the spatial definition of areas for active recreation which meet the adopted, specific for elderly people, pro-health and functional requirements. Creation of such a system in cities would contribute to inclusion of this group into social life, thus boosting social coherence and integration across generations, and would also bring beneficial health results. Such infrastructure would also be of considerable importance for sustainable urban growth and improvement of the quality of urban space. The paper is based on source materials from the fields of science investigating health in connection with physiology of the process of ageing, influence of physical activity on this process, impact of negative features of the environment on the health of elderly people as well as urban space planning and development. The proposed methodology of constructing Inclusive Urban Green Infrastructure is presented on the example of Łódź, using data from the Geographic Information System (Topographic Objects Database) and population database for cities.