The article seeks to analyse the accessibility of hospital healthcare to inhabitants of Łódź voivodeship in 2015. The analysis comprises all the communes of the Łódź region as well as those of the neighbouring voivodeships from which the theoretical time of reaching hospitals in Łódź voivodeship does not exceed the maximum time assumed in the research. Accessibility was determined in reference to 51 hospitals, assuming that their ‘attractiveness’ was related to the number of permanent beds they offered. The research was conducted using the three-step floating catchment area method (3SFCA).
The article presents the results of research devoted to comparing accessibility in terms of theoretical and real travel times by car at inter-regional, intra-regional and intra-urban scales. The research strives to achieve three types of aim. The methodological aim is to assess the suitability of the data for research into transport geography, in particular with regard to accessibility. This objective also focuses on developing a method for acquiring and processing source data from suppliers. The cognitive goal is to analyse the spatial differentiation of theoretical and real travel times at different spatial scales. In terms of application, the focus is on the use of real travel time data for transport planning. Data on theoretical travel times includes the author’s own calculations based on analyses whose key assumption is that cars move on a road network at the maximum speeds allowed by the law with all other variables being excluded. The other source of data (on real travel times) is the Distance Matrix Response provided by Google Maps APIs. Due to methods such as isochrones and cumulative accessibility it was concluded that data obtained from Google servers is highly useful for research into transport geography, including time accessibility analyses. The patterns presented here however cannot be treated uncritically or used for unrestricted analysis. With regard to the cognitive goal, it should be emphasized that spatial variations in travel differences, resulting from theoretical and real variants for journeys between regional cities in Poland, between settlement units within one region, or within one of its large cities, are heterogeneous depending on the nature and length of the journey. Therefore, depending on the spatial extent of analysis, divergences in travel times should be expected.
The aim of the article is to analyse the land transport accessibility of two trans-European corridors within the boundaries of Poland. The adjustment of the course of transport routes to the distribution of the population and the country’s land development (including economic potential and logistic infrastructure) was outlined using measurements of cumulative accessibility. The results were presented in both cartographic form (isochrone approach) and tabular form (cumulative approach). Research was conducted adopting different forms of transport used for relocation (including foot traffic, car, rail and multimodal transport) and both the current and target layout of the transport network. This made it possible to determine the changes that will effectively run the process of investment in transport infrastructure on Polish territory. This allowed the identification of the areas of Poland which are particularly conveniently located in relation to domestic connections (in terms of the international network) and those for which the European transport network remains difficult to access.
This article classifies housing development according to horizontal and vertical intensity in the administrative capitals of each of the Polish provinces. Moreover, the distribution of individual types of residential development is assessed on the example of Warsaw. The function of the place of residence is an elementary urban function which translates itself into a large share of residential development in its structure. It assumes different forms which depend on many factors, such as the location in the given region of the world, conditions of the natural environment, housing tradition or location in the city. It should be borne in mind that cities tend to be heterogeneous urban organisms in which different periods of their development overlap which is reflected in the variations in the appearance of development in its individual parts. The character of buildings changes together with distance from the city centre: the farther from it, the less urban the development tends to be, gradually turning into a rural one both within the city boundaries and outside them. The distribution of residential buildings was analysed with the use of measures of centrography, i.e. centre of gravity, standard deviation and the standard deviation ellipse. Data on residential buildings in the cities analysed was obtained from Polish official geodetic and cartographic databases (państwowy zasób geodezyjny i kartograficzny [PZGiK]) – in particular, Database of Topographic Objects. In turn, layers with land parcels come from the Land-Parcel Identification System [LPIS]. Further analyses use information regarding the vertical and horizontal intensity according to the classification proposed by .
The impact of statutory Sunday retail restrictions on the transport behaviours of people living in the Polish post-socialist city of Lodz is investigated in this article. One carrier of information on journeys undertaken in the city is data from induction loops – a part of the city’s Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The second source of data is a two-stage questionnaire survey (concerning trading and non-trading Sundays) of the city’s inhabitants, aimed at defining any changes in their transport behaviours with reference to the introduction of retail restrictions. The research was conducted to assess the way in which the new statutory restrictions affect transport behaviour discharged after the political transformation. The results of the research conducted on the transport behaviours of Lodz residents indicate that the majority of their transport behaviours clearly depend on whether a given Sunday is a trading or non-trading day. The traffic load of the urban road network (perceived as the manifestation of residents’ spatial mobility) is characterised by a distinct changeability due to the legislative restrictions related to Sunday trading. There is both a time (daily and hourly) differentiation of traffic flows and a spatial changeability of the load in the urban space, when a comparative analysis is conducted of the results of observations made in the weeks preceding trading and non-trading Sundays. The study also demonstrates that the time previously devoted to Sunday shopping is currently spent not only at home, but also allocated to new (and until now unperformed) activities that often require travelling.