The aim of the study was to determine types of soil-forming processes of the selected soils of Northern Poland, basing on the content and profile distribution of iron forms, and the calculated indicators of pedogenesis. The results confirmed the previous statements on the basis of morphological and textural analyses, hypothesis of soils genesis, thereby proving the usefulness of this kind of research in determining these processes. This research showed the beginning of brunification process in the Endogleyic Phaeozem, unnoticed in textural and morphological analysis, in which only the gleization process was previously identified. The content and distribution of iron forms (Fed, Feo, Fec, Fes) in the profiles of the studied soils were characteristic for the type of soil and soil-forming process.
The content of trace elements in soils varies widely and their mobility and availability depends not only on the total content but also on the form of in which these elements occur. The aim of this study was to determine the total content of nickel, lead, zinc and copper in soils used for agriculture, and assess the mobility and phytoavailability of these metals against a background of physical and chemical properties of these soils. In samples taken from three soil profiles (Phaeozem and 2 Fluvisols) the contents of Ni, Pb, Zn and Cu were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy in the solutions obtained according to the protocol of modified BCR sequential extraction procedure supplemented with aqua regia digestion. The total content of the analyzed metals in most cases corresponded to the natural values, often not exceeding the geochemical background level. It was only in the one profile of the Fluvisols (Endogleyic Fluvisol) that a higher concentration of zinc and lead was noticed (especially in the surface horizon), slightly exceeding the legal limit. Among the studied metals the lowest phytoavailability was characterized by copper (exchangeable forms on average 4.73% of the total), and the highest by zinc (11.49%). Nickel was the most permanently bound with soil solid phase, and its content in the residual fraction reached 84.46% of the total. Approximately a half of the total lead content was determined as a fraction bound with iron and manganese oxides, while in the case of this metal a significant role in binding of this metal was playing organic matter (fraction bound with organic matter and sulphides - an average of 27.5%). Significant role in the binding of all investigated metals was credited to iron and manganese compounds.
The aim of the conducted research was the evaluation of the influence of increased pH on the content and mobility of nickel in arable soils in the surroundings of Małogoszcz Cement Plant. The physico-chemical properties of the investigated soils were determined by the methods commonly used in soil laboratories. The total content of Ni was determined after mineralization in the mixture of HF and HClO4 acids, and the content of forms available for plants, after the extraction with DTPA solution, using ASA method. The investigated soils are characterized as loamy sands or sands (PTG 2008). These soils have the content of C-organic in the range of 10.3.24.2 g·kg-1 in the surface horizons and 18.104.22.168 g·kg-1 in the subsurface horizons. The pH values allow to classify these soils as alkaline. In all of the investigated soils calcium carbonate occurs. The values of total content of nickel were in the range of 22.214.171.124 mg·kg-1 in surface horizons and 126.96.36.199 mg·kg-1 in subsurface horizons, which allows to classify these soils as soil with natural nickel content. The content of Ni-DTPA were in the range of 0.06.0.26 mg·kg.1. The sequential analysis of the obtained results indicates on significant statistically positive correlation between the total content of Ni and C-organic, which has the value of 0.648143 and between the content of Ni-DTPA and the content of fraction with Ø<0.002 mm, with the value of 0.581113 on p=0.05.
One of the major factors determining hazard for humans, animals and plants is the increased content of trace elements in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of mercury in surface and subsurface horizons of alluvial soils intensively used for agriculture in aspect of relationship between soil components and Hg amount bound by the soil. The results showed that there was no mercury contamination and dominant component binding this element in analyzed soils was clay fraction. The determined concentrations of mercury were close to the geochemical background level.
With the expansion of urbanization, the increase of pollutants in air, soil and water is observed. The major source of Hg in urban soils is fossil fuel combustion, and these soils become important indicators of contaminants in the soil environment.
The aim of the research was to determine the distribution of mercury in urban soil profiles on the basis of their physicochemical properties and origin.
Analysed soils come from the city centre of Bydgoszcz, from park and square areas intended for recreation. Research was conducted on four soil profiles: Mollic Regosol (Technic), Skeletic Regosol (Technic), Eutric Regosol (Loamic), Eutric Regosol (Endoclayic). Determined in most profiles artefacts were pieces of bricks, concrete, glass, garbage, slag, asphalt, tar, and charcoals in proportion up to 25% of the volume. In soil samples basic soil parameters and the total content of mercury were determined (using atomic absorption spectrometer AMA-254).
Determined parameters and the total mercury content of analysed soils of Bydgoszcz city were typical for urban areas, and the soils were classified as noncontaminated of this metal (total Hg content 0.009-1.114 mg.kg-1, mean 0.218 mg.kg-1). In most analysed soils the source of Hg was atmospheric deposition and addition of human-made materials. It was confirmed by significant correlation coefficient -0.415 (p<0.05), calculated between Hg content and percent of course fragments (Ø>2mm), among which artefacts were very common. Profile distribution of mercury was mainly the result of antropopression but also the concentration of Hg in parent material. Spatial differentiation of Hg content between tested soil profiles was related with localisation (vicinity of heavy traffic roads).
The primary source of soils and plants contamination with heavy metals is rapidly growing traffic. One of the places exposed to harmful effect of vehicle exhaust is Leśny Park Kultury and Wypoczynku in Myślęcinek (LPKiW) near Bydgoszcz. Along LPKiW goes a communication road, which may be the source of environment contamination with heavy metals. The main threat for arable areas and forests is lead (Pb), originating from tetraethyl lead, used until recently as an additive in gasoline.
The aim of the conducted research was to determine the influence of traffic on the content of lead in soils and pine trees bark on the area of LPKiW located in the close vicinity of a busy traffic route. The research material was collected along the outlet route to A1 highway in the distance of 50 - 75 m from the edge of the road, from 13 representative research points. The content of lead in the research material was determined using ASA method after the mineralization of samples with microwave technique. In surface horizons of the investigated soils the total contents of Pb ranged from 11.71 to 40.58 mg·kg-1, and in subsurface horizons ranged from 8.61 to 9.41 mg·kg-1. The characteristic feature of the investigated soils is the higher accumulation of Pb in surface horizons, which is associated with its absorption by organic matter and clay minerals. The obtained results and literature data as compared with Pb content in reference samples show the influence of vehicles emissions on the Pb content
Increasing human activity affects urban ecosystem, including soils. The objective of the study were examine the content of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and manganese in soils of city parks and green areas from Bydgoszcz agglomeration, north Poland, estimate their forms and mobility, characterize distribution within soil profile, and estimate their origin – anthropogenic or natural. Three green areas from the older part of the city were selected for the study. Multistep sequential extraction method was conducted for the separation of seven metal fractions. It is concluded that soil studied were contaminated mainly by zinc and lead. These metals exist mainly in relatively non mobile forms i.e. associated with amorphous and crystalline iron oxides and with soil organic matter. The distribution within soil depth varied due to the elution process and variation of mixed soil material and additives.