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  • Author: Szczepan Młynarz x
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Piotr Krawczyk, Krzysztof Badyda and Szczepan Młynarz


One of the important parameters describing pneumatic liquid atomisation is the air to liquid mass ratio (ALR). Along with the atomiser design and properties of the liquid it has extremely important influence on parameters of atomised liquid such as: mean droplet diameter, jet range and angle. Knowledge about real characteristics of an atomiser in this respect is necessary to correctly choose its operating parameters in industrial applications.

The paper presents results of experimental research of two-fluid atomisers with internal mixing built according to custom design. Investigated atomizers were designed for spraying a urea aqueous solution inside the power boiler combustion chamber. They are an important element of SNCR (selective non-catalytic reduction) installation which is used to reduce nitrogen oxides in a flue gas boiler. Obtained results were used by authors in further research, among others to determine the boundary conditions in the SNCR installation modeling.

The research included determining mean droplet diameter as a function of ALR. It has been based on the immersion liquid method and on the use of specialised instrumentation for determining distribution of droplet diameters in a spray – Spraytec by Malvern. Results obtained with both methods were later compared. The measurements were performed at a laboratory stand located at the Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology. The stand enables extensive investigation of the water atomisation process.

Open access

Piotr Krawczyk, Krzysztof Badyda, Jacek Szczygieł and Szczepan Młynarz


Distribution of the exhaust gas temperature within the furnace of a grate boiler greatly depends on its operating parameters such as output. It has a considerably different character than temperature distributions in other types of boilers (with pulverised or fluidised bed), as it varies considerably across the chamber. Results presented in this paper have been obtained through research of a grate-fired hot water boiler with a nominal rating of some 30 MW. Measurements have been taken by introducing temperature sensors into prearranged openings placed in the boiler side walls. Investigation has been carried out for different output levels. Tests involved thermocouples in ceramic coating and aspirated thermocouples. The latter were used to eliminate influence of radiative heat transfer on measured results. Values obtained with both methods have been cross-checked.