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  • Author: Szabolcs Czigány x
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Abstract

The identification of drought-sensitive areas (DSAs) in floodplain Fluvisols of high textural pedodiversity is crucial for sustainable land management purposes. During extended drought periods moisture replenishment is only available by capillary rise from the groundwater. However, moisture flux is often hindered by capillary barriers in the interface between layers of contrasting textures. The results of HYDRUS-1D simulations run on multilayered soil profiles were integrated into textural maps to determine the spatial distribution of water dynamics on the floodplain of the Drava River (SW Hungary). Model runs and field data revealed limited moisture replenishment by capillary rise when both contrasting textural interfaces and sandy layers are present in the profile. By implementing these textural and hydraulic relations, a drought vulnerability map (DSA map) of the operational area of the Old Drava Programme (ODP) was developed. According to the spatial distribution of soils of reduced capillary rise, 52% of the ODP area is likely threatened by droughts. Our model results are adaptable for optimisation of land- and water-management practices along the floodplains of low-energy and medium-sized rivers under humid continental and maritime climates.

Abstract

Chernozemic soils are distinguished based on the presence of thick, black or very dark, rich in humus, well-structural and base-saturated topsoil horizon, and the accumulation of secondary carbonates within soil profile. In Central Europe these soils occur in variable forms, respectively to climate gradients, position in the landscape, moisture regime, land use, and erosion/accumulation intensity. “Typical” chernozems, correlated with Calcic or Haplic Chernozems, are similarly positioned at basic classification level in the national soil classifications in Poland, Slovakia and Hungary, and in WRB. Chernozemic soils at various stages of their transformation are placed in Chernozems, Phaeozems or Kastanozems, supplied with respective qualifiers, e.g. Cambic, Luvic, Salic/Protosalic, Sodic/Protosodic etc. Some primeval Chernozems thinned by erosion may still fulfil criteria of Chernozems, but commonly are shifted to Calcisols. Soils upbuilt (aggraded) with colluvial additions may also retain their original placement in Chernozems, getting supplementary qualifier Colluvic. “Hydromorphic” chernozemic soils, in many CE systems are placed as separate soil type (“czarne ziemie” or “čiernice”) at the same level with “typical” chernozems. Classification of these soils in WRB depends on the presence of chernic horizon, depth of secondary carbonate accumulation and depth of gleyic/stagnic properties, and may vary from Gleyic/Stagnic Chernozems/Phaeozems to Mollic Gleysols/Stagnosols. Although WRB classification differs from national classifications in the concepts and priorities of classification, it provides large opportunity to reflect the spatial variability and various stages of transformation/degradation of chernozemic soils in Central Europe.