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  • Author: Sylwia Mikołajczyk x
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Dorota Weigt, Zbigniew Broda, Jarosław Lira and Sylwia Mikołajczyk

Morphological and cytological characteristics of inflorescence mutants in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Sl)

The presented study analyzed selected biometric characteristics of inflorescences, seed yield structure characters, and discussed cytological analyses concerning two spontaneous inflorescence mutants in alfalfa: top flowering (plants with the "tf" gene) and long peduncle mutants (plants with the "lp" gene). Analyses were conducted in 2005 and 2006 and the results were subjected to a one-way statistical analysis with the use of Tukey's test. It was found that mutants with gene "lp" exhibited the highest seed yielding potential, while plants with gene "tf" were characterized with the highest stability in terms of most investigated characters in the first and second year of the study; however, they set a lower number of seeds than plants of the control cultivar.

Open access

Sylwia Cyboran-Mikołajczyk, Ákos Csonka, Joseph Molnar, Diana Szabó, Jan Oszmiański and Halina Kleszczyńska

Abstract

The leaves of mini kiwi (Actinidia arguta) are a rich source of phenolic compounds, in particular the B-type procyanidins that exhibit e.g. antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to determine the biological activity of the extract from leaves of kiwi in relation to cells of erythrocytes and lymphoma. This activity was determined by studying kiwi leaves extract anti-hemolytic, cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity, and its ability to change the physical properties of the cell membrane and inhibit multidrug resistance of mouse lymphoma cells. It was shown that the extract ingredients bound to the cells, caused changes in erythrocyte shape and slightly affected the granularity and size of lymphoma cells. They effectively protected the red blood cells from oxidative damage, but were not toxic to lymphoma cells and did not affect their multidrug resistance. The extract of kiwi leaves is an effective antioxidant but it does not exhibit cytotoxic activity. Therefore, it can be used in the prevention of diseases, especially those related to oxidative stress.

Open access

Sylwia Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew Broda, Danuta Mackiewicz, Dorota Weigt, Agnieszka Tomkowiak and Jan Bocianowski

Abstract

Breeding work using European rye populations has resulted in a considerable reduction of genetic variation in breeding materials of that species. Many taxa from the genus Secale may constitute a potential source of genetic variation in rye breeding. A source of new genetic variation can be found in such species as Secale montanum and Secale vavilovii, which are sources of resistance to fusarium ear blight and septoria leaf blotch, while Secale vavilovii may also be a source of sterilising cytoplasm. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of crossing the wild species Secale vavilovii and the rye subspecies Secale cereale subsp. afghanicum, Secale cereale subsp. ancestrale, Secale cereale subsp. dighoricum, Secale cereale subsp. segetale with the crop species Secale cereale ssp. cereale, and to produce F1 hybrids and describe selected morphological traits. Observations of biometric traits indicate that the F1 crosses produced may be potential sources of variation for common rye. The greatest variation in terms of all analysed phenotypic traits combined was found for the cross combinations S. c. ssp. cereale cv. Amilo × S. c. ssp. ancestrale and S. c. ssp. cereale cv. Dańkowskie Diament × S. c. ssp. dighoricum. The hybrids showed considerable variation in the analysed biometric traits within individual cross combinations.